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Sequential Hybrid Three-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Accurate Mass Spectrometry: A Novel Tool for High-Resolution Characterization of Multicomponent Samples

  • DanDan Yan
    DanDan Yan
    Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
    Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
    More by DanDan Yan
  • Yong Foo Wong
    Yong Foo Wong
    School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • Simon P. Whittock
    Simon P. Whittock
    Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
    Hop Products Australia, 446 Elizabeth St, Hobart, TAS 7000, Australia
  • Anthony Koutoulis
    Anthony Koutoulis
    School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
  • Robert A. Shellie
    Robert A. Shellie
    Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
    Trajan Scientific and Medical, 7 Argent Place, Ringwood, VIC 3154, Australia
    School of Science, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne Victoria 3001, Australia
  • , and 
  • Philip J. Marriott*
    Philip J. Marriott
    Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
    *E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Anal. Chem. 2018, 90, 8, 5264–5271
Publication Date (Web):March 26, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b00142
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    A novel sequential three-dimensional gas chromatography–high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (3D GC–accTOFMS) approach for profiling secondary metabolites in complex plant extracts is described. This integrated system incorporates a nonpolar first-dimension (1Dnp) separation step, prior to a microfluidic heart-cut (H/C) of a targeted region(s) to a cryogenic trapping device, directly followed by the rapid reinjection of a trapped solute into a polar second-dimension (2DPEG) column for multidimensional separation (GCnp–GCPEG). For additional separation, the effluent from 2DPEG can then be modulated according to a comprehensive 2D GC process (GC×GC), using an ionic liquid phase as a third-dimension (3DIL) column, to produce a sequential GCnp–GCPEG×GCIL separation. Thus, the unresolved or poorly resolved components, or regions that require further separation, can be precisely selected and rapidly transferred for additional separation on 2D or 3D columns, based on the greater separation realized by these steps. The described integrated system can be used in a number of modes, but one useful approach is to target specific classes of compounds for improved resolution. This is demonstrated through the separation and detection of the oxygenated sesquiterpenes in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oil and agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) oleoresin. Improved resolution and peak capacity were illustrated through the progressive comparison of the tentatively identified components for GCnp–GCPEG and GCnp–GCPEG×GCIL methods. Relative standard deviations of intraday retentions (1tR, 2tR,, and 3tR) and peak areas of ≤0.01, 0.07, 0.71, and 7.5% were achieved. This analytical approach comprising three GC column selectivities, hyphenated with high-resolution TOFMS detection, should be a valuable adjunct for the improved characterization of complex plant samples, particularly in the area of plant metabolomics.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b00142.

    • Chromatograms of a hop essential oil sample, mass spectra of guiaol and γ-gurjunenepoxide-(2), GC×GC analysis of a hop essential oil and agarwood oleoresin, mass spectra of santalcamphor, estafiatin and saussurea lactone, tentatively identified oxygenated sesquiterpenes in a hop essential oil sample and agarwood oleoresin, and retention times and peak area reproducibilities of selected compounds in a hop essential oil sample (PDF)

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    2. Noor Abdulhussain, Suhas Nawada, Peter Schoenmakers. Latest Trends on the Future of Three-Dimensional Separations in Chromatography. Chemical Reviews 2021, 121 (19) , 12016-12034. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01244
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    19. Timothy J. Trinklein, Sonia Schöneich, Paige E. Sudol, Cable G. Warren, Derrick V. Gough, Robert E. Synovec. Total-transfer comprehensive three-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2020, 1634 , 461654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461654
    20. Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad Javad Masroor, Yadollah Yamini. Designating the geographical origin of Iranian almond and red jujube oils using fluorescence spectroscopy and l1-penalized chemometric methods. Microchemical Journal 2020, 157 , 104984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2020.104984
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    24. Biswapriya B. Misra. Metabolomics Tools to Study Links Between Pollution and Human Health: an Exposomics Perspective. Current Pollution Reports 2019, 5 (3) , 93-111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40726-019-00109-4
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    26. Tingting Yan, Sheng Yang, Yuan Chen, Qian Wang, Gaiyun Li. Chemical Profiles of Cultivated Agarwood Induced by Different Techniques. Molecules 2019, 24 (10) , 1990. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101990
    27. Maria Mazzucotelli, Carlo Bicchi, Arianna Marengo, Patrizia Rubiolo, Stefano Galli, Jared L. Anderson, Barbara Sgorbini, Cecilia Cagliero. Ionic liquids as stationary phases for gas chromatography—Unusual selectivity of ionic liquids with a phosphonium cation and different anions in the flavor, fragrance and essential oil analyses. Journal of Chromatography A 2019, 1583 , 124-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.11.032

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