ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Novel Radiotracer for ImmunoPET Imaging of PD-1 Checkpoint Expression on Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes

View Author Information
† ‡ § Radiology, School of Medicine, Bioengineering and §Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
*E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: 650-725-2309. Fax: 650-724-4948.
Cite this: Bioconjugate Chem. 2015, 26, 10, 2062–2069
Publication Date (Web):August 26, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options
    Supporting Info (2)»


    Abstract Image

    Immune checkpoint signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) axis to its ligand (PD-L1) significantly dampens anti-tumor immune responses. Cancer patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that block this suppressive signaling have exhibited objective response rates of 20–40% for advanced solid tumors, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas. This represents a tremendous advance in cancer treatment. Unfortunately, all patients do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade. Recent findings suggest that patients with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) expressing PD-1 may be most likely to respond to αPD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. There is a compelling need for diagnostic and prognostic imaging tools to assess the PD-1 status of TILs in vivo. Here we have developed a novel immunoPET tracer to image PD-1 expressing TILs in a transgenic mouse model bearing melanoma. A 64Cu labeled anti-mouse antibody (IgG) PD-1 immuno positron emission tomography (PET) tracer was developed to detect PD-1 expressing murine TILs. Quality control of the tracer showed >95% purity by HPLC and >70% immunoreactivity in an in vitro cell binding assay. ImmunoPET scans were performed over 1–48 h on Foxp3+.LuciDTR4 mice bearing B16–F10 melanoma tumors. Mice receiving anti-PD-1 tracer (200 ± 10 μCi/10–12 μg/200 μL) revealed high tracer uptake in lymphoid organs and tumors. BLI images of FoxP3+ CD4+ Tregs known to express PD-1 confirmed lymphocyte infiltration of tumors at the time of PET imaging. Biodistribution measurements performed at 48 h revealed a high (11×) tumor to muscle uptake ratio of the PET tracer (p < 0.05). PD-1 tumors exhibited 7.4 ± 0.7%ID/g tracer uptake and showed a 2× fold signal decrease when binding was blocked by unlabeled antibody. To the best of our knowledge this data is the first report to image PD-1 expression in living subjects with PET. This radiotracer has the potential to assess the prognostic value of PD-1 in preclinical models of immunotherapy and may ultimately aid in predicting response to therapies targeting immune checkpoints.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.5b00318.

    • MALDI; in vitro live cell binding assay; Western blot analysis; immunofluorescent detection of PD-1 expression on TILs; materials and methods (PDF)

    • Movie of 64Cu-DOTA-anti-PD-1-mab immunoPET tracer in a melanoma mouse (MPG)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 125 publications.

    1. Xiumin Shi, Teng Liu, Pei Pei, Wenhao Shen, Lin Hu, Ran Zhu, Feng Wang, Chunying Chen, Kai Yang. Radionuclide-Labeled Antisilencing Function 1a Inhibitory Peptides for Tumor Identification and Individualized Therapy. ACS Nano 2024, 18 (12) , 9114-9127.
    2. Parisa Badiee, Michelle F Maritz, Nicole Dmochowska, Edward Cheah, Benjamin Thierry. Intratumoral Anti-PD-1 Nanoformulation Improves Its Biodistribution. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2022, 14 (14) , 15881-15893.
    3. Weijun Wei, Zachary T. Rosenkrans, Jianjun Liu, Gang Huang, Quan-Yong Luo, Weibo Cai. ImmunoPET: Concept, Design, and Applications. Chemical Reviews 2020, 120 (8) , 3787-3851.
    4. Haley L. Wissler, Emily B. Ehlerding, Zhigang Lyu, Yue Zhao, Si Zhang, Anisa Eshraghi, Zakey Yusuf Buuh, Jeffrey C. McGuth, Yifu Guan, Jonathan W. Engle, Sarah J. Bartlett, Vincent A. Voelz, Weibo Cai, Rongsheng E. Wang. Site-Specific Immuno-PET Tracer to Image PD-L1. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2019, 16 (5) , 2028-2036.
    5. Dan Li, Siyuan Cheng, Sijuan Zou, Dongling Zhu, Tinghui Zhu, Pilin Wang, Xiaohua Zhu. Immuno-PET Imaging of 89Zr Labeled Anti-PD-L1 Domain Antibody. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2018, 15 (4) , 1674-1681.
    6. Yang Du, Xiaolong Liang, Yuan Li, Ting Sun, Zhengyu Jin, Huadan Xue, and Jie Tian . Nuclear and Fluorescent Labeled PD-1-Liposome-DOX-64Cu/IRDye800CW Allows Improved Breast Tumor Targeted Imaging and Therapy. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2017, 14 (11) , 3978-3986.
    7. Muhammad Kazim, Euna Yoo. Recent Advances in the Development of Non‐Invasive Imaging Probes for Cancer Immunotherapy. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2024, 63 (2)
    8. Muhammad Kazim, Euna Yoo. Recent Advances in the Development of Non‐Invasive Imaging Probes for Cancer Immunotherapy. Angewandte Chemie 2024, 136 (2)
    9. Shuli Tang, Tiantian Fan, Xinxin Wang, Can Yu, Chunhui Zhang, Yang Zhou. Cancer Immunotherapy and Medical Imaging Research Trends from 2003 to 2023: A Bibliometric Analysis. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare 2024, Volume 17 , 2105-2120.
    10. Dinghu Weng, Rong Guo, Ziyang Zhu, Yu Gao, Rui An, Xiuman Zhou. Peptide-based PET imaging agent of tumor TIGIT expression. EJNMMI Research 2023, 13 (1)
    11. Xiaju Cheng, Jiahao Shen, Jingwei Xu, Jinfeng Zhu, Pei Xu, Yong Wang, Mingyuan Gao. In vivo clinical molecular imaging of T cell activity. Trends in Immunology 2023, 44 (12) , 1031-1045.
    12. Guangfa Bao, Jianyuan Zhou, Siyuan Cheng, Jun Zhao, Xiaohua Zhu. In vivo visualization of immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment. iRADIOLOGY 2023, 1 (3) , 269-280.
    13. Thangalakshmi Sivathapandi, Jaykanth Amalchandran, Amol Takalkar, Lance T. Hall. Molecular Imaging of Lung and Pleural Tumors. 2023, 59-82.
    14. Zhuo Yao, Qida Hu, Piaopiao Jin, Bowen Li, Yong Huang, Fu Zhang, Meng Wang, Junming Huang, Jing Huang, Shiyi Shao, Xinyu Zhao, Yuan Ping, Tingbo Liang. A Self‐Assembly Combined Nano‐Prodrug to Overcome Gemcitabine Chemo‐Resistance of Pancreatic Tumors. Advanced Functional Materials 2023, 33 (30)
    15. Xiaoqing Xing, Qing Zhao, Jinyun Zhou, Rui Zhou, Yu Liu, Xiyi Qin, Mingrong Zhang, Yan Zhong, Jing Wang, Mei Tian, Hong Zhang. Positron emission tomography molecular imaging to monitor anti-tumor systemic response for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2023, 50 (6) , 1671-1688.
    16. María Fernanda García Melián, María Moreno, Hugo Cerecetto, Victoria Calzada. Aptamer-Based Immunotheranostic Strategies. Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 2023, 38 (4) , 246-255.
    17. Jing Yu, Bo Gao. Molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. iRADIOLOGY 2023, 1 (1) , 3-17.
    18. John Y. Rhee, Jack Y. Ghannam, Bryan D. Choi, Elizabeth R. Gerstner. Labeling T Cells to Track Immune Response to Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma. Tomography 2023, 9 (1) , 274-284.
    19. Alessia Volpe, Ronald Blasberg, Inna Serganova, Vladimir Ponomarev. Imaging the immune cell in immunotherapy. 2023, 197-238.
    20. Mohammad O. Sako, Benjamin M. Larimer. Imaging of Activated T Cells. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2023, 64 (1) , 30-33.
    21. Elena-Georgiana Dobre, Mihaela Surcel, Carolina Constantin, Mihaela Adriana Ilie, Ana Caruntu, Constantin Caruntu, Monica Neagu. Skin Cancer Pathobiology at a Glance: A Focus on Imaging Techniques and Their Potential for Improved Diagnosis and Surveillance in Clinical Cohorts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2023, 24 (2) , 1079.
    22. Chiara Lauri, Michela Varani, Valeria Bentivoglio, Gabriela Capriotti, Alberto Signore. Present status and future trends in molecular imaging of lymphocytes. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 2023, 53 (1) , 125-134.
    23. M.I. Strecker, K. Wlotzka, F. Strassheimer, B. Roller, G. Ludmirski, S. König, J. Röder, C. Opitz, T. Alekseeva, J. Reul, L. Sevenich, T. Tonn, W.S. Wels, J.P. Steinbach, C.J. Buchholz, M.C. Burger. AAV-mediated gene transfer of a checkpoint inhibitor in combination with HER2-targeted CAR-NK cells as experimental therapy for glioblastoma. OncoImmunology 2022, 11 (1)
    24. Fiona Hegi-Johnson, Stacey Rudd, Rodney J. Hicks, Dirk De Ruysscher, Joseph A. Trapani, Thomas John, Paul Donnelly, Benjamin Blyth, Gerard Hanna, Sarah Everitt, Peter Roselt, Michael P. MacManus. Imaging immunity in patients with cancer using positron emission tomography. npj Precision Oncology 2022, 6 (1)
    25. Dario Gosmann, Lisa Russelli, Wolfgang A. Weber, Markus Schwaiger, Angela M. Krackhardt, Calogero D’Alessandria. Promise and challenges of clinical non-invasive T-cell tracking in the era of cancer immunotherapy. EJNMMI Research 2022, 12 (1)
    26. Shushan Ge, Tongtong Jia, Jihui Li, Bin Zhang, Shengming Deng, Shibiao Sang. Molecular imaging of immune checkpoints in oncology: Current and future applications. Cancer Letters 2022, 548 , 215896.
    27. Jing Zhu, Fei Pan, Huawei Cai, Lili Pan, Yalun Li, Lin Li, YunChun Li, Xiaoai Wu, Hong Fan. Positron emission tomography imaging of lung cancer: An overview of alternative positron emission tomography tracers beyond F18 fluorodeoxyglucose. Frontiers in Medicine 2022, 9
    28. Priyanka Banerjee, Sukanya Roy, Sanjukta Chakraborty. Recent advancement of imaging strategies of the lymphatic system: Answer to the decades old questions. Microcirculation 2022, 29 (6-7)
    29. Alessia Volpe, Prasad S Adusumilli, Heiko Schöder, Vladimir Ponomarev. Imaging cellular immunotherapies and immune cell biomarkers: from preclinical studies to patients. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2022, 10 (9) , e004902.
    30. Wan-Ling Liu, Yong-Qu Zhang, Liang-Tao Li, Yuan-Yuan Zhu, Zi-He Ming, Wei-Ling Chen, Rui-Qin Yang, Rong-Hui Li, Min Chen, Guo-Jun Zhang. Application of molecular imaging in immune checkpoints therapy: From response assessment to prognosis prediction. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 2022, 176 , 103746.
    31. Roger Sun, Théophraste Henry, Adrien Laville, Alexandre Carré, Anthony Hamaoui, Sophie Bockel, Ines Chaffai, Antonin Levy, Cyrus Chargari, Charlotte Robert, Eric Deutsch. Imaging approaches and radiomics: toward a new era of ultraprecision radioimmunotherapy?. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2022, 10 (7) , e004848.
    32. Reyhaneh Manafi-Farid, Bahar Ataeinia, Shaghayegh Ranjbar, Zahra Jamshidi Araghi, Mohammad Mobin Moradi, Christian Pirich, Mohsen Beheshti. ImmunoPET: Antibody-Based PET Imaging in Solid Tumors. Frontiers in Medicine 2022, 9
    33. Wenjia Zhang, Xiaolong Liang, Liang Zhu, Xinyu Zhang, Zhengyu Jin, Yang Du, Jie Tian, Huadan Xue. Optical magnetic multimodality imaging of plectin-1-targeted imaging agent for the precise detection of orthotopic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. eBioMedicine 2022, 80 , 104040.
    34. Fabian Krutzek, Klaus Kopka, Sven Stadlbauer. Development of Radiotracers for Imaging of the PD-1/PD-L1 Axis. Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15 (6) , 747.
    35. Sana Arnouk, Timo W.M. De Groof, Jo A. Van Ginderachter. Imaging and therapeutic targeting of the tumor immune microenvironment with biologics. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2022, 184 , 114239.
    36. Anna M. Wu, Neeta Pandit-Taskar. ImmunoPET: harnessing antibodies for imaging immune cells. Molecular Imaging and Biology 2022, 24 (2) , 181-197.
    37. Áron Roxin, François Bénard. Radioimaging of Activated T Cells in Preclinical and Clinical Cancer Investigations. 2022, 61-101.
    38. Bilquees, Humira Jeelani, Nahida Tabasum, Faheem Hyder Pottoo. Immunopharmacogenomics: a hope in the treatment of carcinoma. 2022, 327-346.
    39. Yanling Yang, Chao Wang, Yan Wang, Yan Sun, Xing Huang, Minzhou Huang, Hui Xu, Huaying Fan, Daquan Chen, Feng Zhao. Dose escalation biodistribution, positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and dosimetry of a highly specific radionuclide-labeled non-blocking nanobody. EJNMMI Research 2021, 11 (1)
    40. Chukwuka Eze, Nina-Sophie Schmidt-Hegemann, Lino Morris Sawicki, Julian Kirchner, Olarn Roengvoraphoj, Lukas Käsmann, Lena M. Mittlmeier, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Amanda Tufman, Julien Dinkel, Jens Ricke, Claus Belka, Farkhad Manapov, Marcus Unterrainer. PET/CT imaging for evaluation of multimodal treatment efficacy and toxicity in advanced NSCLC—current state and future directions. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2021, 48 (12) , 3975-3989.
    41. Peng Jin, Jianing Li, Yingtao Meng, Leilei Wu, Menglin Bai, Jinming Yu, Xue Meng. PET/CT metabolic patterns in systemic immune activation: A new perspective on the assessment of immunotherapy response and efficacy. Cancer Letters 2021, 520 , 91-99.
    42. Egesta Lopci. Immunotherapy Monitoring with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Based on [18F]FDG PET/CT in Metastatic Melanomas and Lung Cancer. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2021, 10 (21) , 5160.
    43. Virginia Liberini, Annapaola Mariniello, Luisella Righi, Martina Capozza, Marco Donatello Delcuratolo, Enzo Terreno, Mohsen Farsad, Marco Volante, Silvia Novello, Désirée Deandreis. NSCLC Biomarkers to Predict Response to Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI): From the Cells to In Vivo Images. Cancers 2021, 13 (18) , 4543.
    44. David Leung, Samuel Bonacorsi, Ralph Adam Smith, Wolfgang Weber, Wendy Hayes. Molecular Imaging and the PD-L1 Pathway: From Bench to Clinic. Frontiers in Oncology 2021, 11
    45. Alizée Bouleau, Vincent Lebon, Charles Truillet. PET imaging of immune checkpoint proteins in oncology. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2021, 222 , 107786.
    46. Songbing Qin, Yang Yu, Hui Guan, Yanling Yang, Fenghao Sun, Yan Sun, Jiaxing Zhu, Ligang Xing, Jinming Yu, Xiaorong Sun. A preclinical study: correlation between PD-L1 PET imaging and the prediction of therapy efficacy of MC38 tumor with 68Ga-labeled PD-L1 targeted nanobody. Aging 2021, 13 (9) , 13006-13022.
    47. Carina Peres, Ana I. Matos, Liane I.F. Moura, Rita C. Acúrcio, Barbara Carreira, Sabina Pozzi, Daniella Vaskovich-Koubi, Ron Kleiner, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Helena F. Florindo. Preclinical models and technologies to advance nanovaccine development. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2021, 172 , 148-182.
    48. Shujing Wang, Hua Zhu, Jin Ding, Feng Wang, Xiangxi Meng, Lixin Ding, Yan Zhang, Nan Li, Sheng Yao, Xinan Sheng, Zhi Yang. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Programmed Death 1 Expression in Cancer Patients Using 124I-Labeled Toripalimab. Clinical Nuclear Medicine 2021, 46 (5) , 382-388.
    49. Zebin Xiao, Ellen Puré. Imaging of T-cell Responses in the Context of Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancer Immunology Research 2021, 9 (5) , 490-502.
    50. Daniel J Rubins, Xiangjun Meng, Paul McQuade, Michael Klimas, Krista Getty, Shu-An Lin, Brett M. Connolly, Stacey S. O’Malley, Hyking Haley, Mona Purcell, Liza Gantert, Marie Holahan, Joel Lindgren, Pär Eklund, Caroline Ekblad, Fredrik Y. Frejd, Eric D. Hostetler, Dinko E. González Trotter, Jeffrey L. Evelhoch. In Vivo Evaluation and Dosimetry Estimate for a High Affinity Affibody PET Tracer Targeting PD-L1. Molecular Imaging and Biology 2021, 23 (2) , 241-249.
    51. Travis Shaffer, Arutselvan Natarajan, Sanjiv S. Gambhir. PET Imaging of TIGIT Expression on Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes. Clinical Cancer Research 2021, 27 (7) , 1932-1940.
    52. Virginia Liberini, Riccardo Laudicella, Martina Capozza, Martin W. Huellner, Irene A. Burger, Sergio Baldari, Enzo Terreno, Désirée Deandreis. The Future of Cancer Diagnosis, Treatment and Surveillance: A Systemic Review on Immunotherapy and Immuno-PET Radiotracers. Molecules 2021, 26 (8) , 2201.
    53. Reona Sakemura, Ismail Can, Elizabeth L. Siegler, Saad S. Kenderian. In vivo CART cell imaging: Paving the way for success in CART cell therapy. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics 2021, 20 , 625-633.
    54. Violena Pietrobon, Alessandra Cesano, Francesco Marincola, Jakob Nikolas Kather. Next Generation Imaging Techniques to Define Immune Topographies in Solid Tumors. Frontiers in Immunology 2021, 11
    55. Barbara Carreira, Rita C. Acúrcio, Ana I. Matos, Carina Peres, Sabina Pozzi, Daniella Vaskovich‐Koubi, Ron Kleiner, Mariana Bento, Ronit Satchi‐Fainaro, Helena F. Florindo. Nanomedicines as Multifunctional Modulators of Melanoma Immune Microenvironment. Advanced Therapeutics 2021, 4 (1)
    56. Kathryn M. Tully, Veronica L. Nagle, Joshua A. Korsen, Jason S. Lewis. Antibody-Based Molecular Imaging. 2021, 547-562.
    57. Aisling M. Chaney, Emily M. Deal, Isaac M. Jackson, Michelle L. James. PET Imaging of Neuroinflammation. 2021, 1335-1371.
    58. Sabah Nisar, Ajaz A. Bhat, Sheema Hashem, Santosh K. Yadav, Arshi Rizwan, Mayank Singh, Puneet Bagga, Muzafar A. Macha, Michael P. Frenneaux, Ravinder Reddy, Mohammad Haris. Non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring the immunotherapeutic response to cancer. Journal of Translational Medicine 2020, 18 (1)
    59. Marcus Unterrainer, Michael Ruzicka, Matthias P. Fabritius, Lena M. Mittlmeier, Michael Winkelmann, Johannes Rübenthaler, Matthias Brendel, Marion Subklewe, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon, Jens Ricke, Wolfgang G. Kunz, Clemens C. Cyran. PET/CT imaging for tumour response assessment to immunotherapy: current status and future directions. European Radiology Experimental 2020, 4 (1)
    60. Angelo Castello, Sabrina Rossi, Egesta Lopci. 18F-FDG PET/CT in Restaging and Evaluation of Response to Therapy in Lung Cancer: State of the Art. Current Radiopharmaceuticals 2020, 13 (3) , 228-237.
    61. Surya Murty, Louai Labanieh, Tara Murty, Gayatri Gowrishankar, Tom Haywood, Israt S. Alam, Corinne Beinat, Elise Robinson, Amin Aalipour, Dorota D. Klysz, Jennifer R. Cochran, Robbie G. Majzner, Crystal L. Mackall, Sanjiv S. Gambhir. PET Reporter Gene Imaging and Ganciclovir-Mediated Ablation of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Solid Tumors. Cancer Research 2020, 80 (21) , 4731-4740.
    62. Kuan Hu, Lin Xie, Masayuki Hanyu, Yiding Zhang, Lingyun Li, Xiaohui Ma, Kotaro Nagatsu, Hisashi Suzuki, Weizhi Wang, Ming-Rong Zhang. Harnessing the PD-L1 interface peptide for positron emission tomography imaging of the PD-1 immune checkpoint. RSC Chemical Biology 2020, 1 (4) , 214-224.
    63. Elly L van der Veen, Danique Giesen, Linda Pot-de Jong, Annelies Jorritsma-Smit, Elisabeth G E De Vries, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge. 89 Zr-pembrolizumab biodistribution is influenced by PD-1-mediated uptake in lymphoid organs. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020, 8 (2) , e000938.
    64. Xiaofeng Dai, Lihui Yu, Xijiang Zhao, Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov. Nanomaterials for oncotherapies targeting the hallmarks of cancer. Nanotechnology 2020, 31 (39) , 392001.
    65. Prashant Dogra, Joseph D. Butner, Sara Nizzero, Javier Ruiz Ramírez, Achraf Noureddine, María J. Peláez, Dalia Elganainy, Zhen Yang, Anh‐Dung Le, Shreya Goel, Hon S. Leong, Eugene J. Koay, C. Jeffrey Brinker, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang. Image‐guided mathematical modeling for pharmacological evaluation of nanomaterials and monoclonal antibodies. WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 2020, 12 (5)
    66. Robert R. Flavell, Michael J. Evans, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Sue S. Yom. Understanding Response to Immunotherapy Using Standard of Care and Experimental Imaging Approaches. International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics 2020, 108 (1) , 242-257.
    67. Susanne Lütje, Georg Feldmann, Markus Essler, Peter Brossart, Ralph A. Bundschuh. Immune Checkpoint Imaging in Oncology: A Game Changer Toward Personalized Immunotherapy?. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2020, 61 (8) , 1137-1144.
    68. Zunyu Xiao, Aaron T. Mayer, Tomomi W. Nobashi, Sanjiv S. Gambhir. ICOS Is an Indicator of T-cell–Mediated Response to Cancer Immunotherapy. Cancer Research 2020, 80 (14) , 3023-3032.
    69. Claire E. McCarthy, Jordan M. White, Nerissa T. Viola, Heather M. Gibson. In vivo Imaging Technologies to Monitor the Immune System. Frontiers in Immunology 2020, 11
    70. Stefano Frega, Alessandro Dal Maso, Giulia Pasello, Lea Cuppari, Laura Bonanno, PierFranco Conte, Laura Evangelista. Novel Nuclear Medicine Imaging Applications in Immuno-Oncology. Cancers 2020, 12 (5) , 1303.
    71. Madeleine Iafrate, Gilbert O. Fruhwirth. How Non-invasive in vivo Cell Tracking Supports the Development and Translation of Cancer Immunotherapies. Frontiers in Physiology 2020, 11
    72. Lihong Bu, Yanqiu Sun, Guang Han, Ning Tu, Jiachao Xiao, Qi Wang. Outcome Prediction and Evaluation by Imaging the Key Elements of Therapeutic Responses to Cancer Immunotherapies Using PET. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2020, 26 (6) , 675-687.
    73. E.A. Lim, C.G. Drake, A. Mintz. Molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. Immuno-Oncology Technology 2020, 5 , 10-21.
    74. Justine Perrin, Marisa Capitao, Marie Mougin-Degraef, François Guérard, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Latifa Rbah-Vidal, Joëlle Gaschet, Yannick Guilloux, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Michel Chérel, Jacques Barbet. Cell Tracking in Cancer Immunotherapy. Frontiers in Medicine 2020, 7
    75. Claudia Foray, Cristina Barca, Philipp Backhaus, Sonja Schelhaas, Alexandra Winkeler, Thomas Viel, Michael Schäfers, Oliver Grauer, Andreas H. Jacobs, Bastian Zinnhardt. Multimodal Molecular Imaging of the Tumour Microenvironment. 2020, 71-87.
    76. Mohammad Haris, Sabah Nisar, Sheema Hashem, Ajaz A. Bhat, Santosh Yadav, Muralitharan Shanmugakonar, Hamda Al-Naemi, Puneet Bagga, Shahab Uddin, Ravinder Reddy. Functional In Vivo Imaging of Tumors. 2020, 3-50.
    77. Egesta Lopci, Stefano Fanti. Non-FDG PET/CT. 2020, 669-718.
    78. Weiqing Wang, Zhenhua Gao, Lu Wang, Jianing Li, Jinming Yu, Shumei Han, Xue Meng. <p>Application and Prospects of Molecular Imaging in Immunotherapy</p>. Cancer Management and Research 2020, Volume 12 , 9389-9403.
    79. Gaochao Lv, Xiaorong Sun, Ling Qiu, Yan Sun, Ke Li, Qingzhu Liu, Qi Zhao, Songbing Qin, Jianguo Lin. PET Imaging of Tumor PD-L1 Expression with a Highly Specific Nonblocking Single-Domain Antibody. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2020, 61 (1) , 117-122.
    80. Mathieu Sinigaglia, Tarek Assi, Florent L. Besson, Samy Ammari, Myriam Edjlali, Whitney Feltus, Laura Rozenblum-Beddok, Binsheng Zhao, Lawrence H. Schwartz, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Laurent Dercle. Imaging-guided precision medicine in glioblastoma patients treated with immune checkpoint modulators: research trend and future directions in the field of imaging biomarkers and artificial intelligence. EJNMMI Research 2019, 9 (1)
    81. Peter Wierstra, Gerwin Sandker, Erik Aarntzen, Martin Gotthardt, Gosse Adema, Johan Bussink, René Raavé, Sandra Heskamp. Tracers for non-invasive radionuclide imaging of immune checkpoint expression in cancer. EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry 2019, 4 (1)
    82. Maria Rosana Ponisio, Farrokh Dehdashti. A Role of PET Agents Beyond FDG in Gynecology. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 2019, 49 (6) , 501-511.
    83. Enya Li, Li Lin, Chia-Wei Chen, Da-Liang Ou. Mouse Models for Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cancers 2019, 11 (11) , 1800.
    84. Hyesun Park, Lynette M. Sholl, Hiroto Hatabu, Mark M. Awad, Mizuki Nishino. Imaging of Precision Therapy for Lung Cancer: Current State of the Art. Radiology 2019, 293 (1) , 15-29.
    85. Yang Du, Yinhua Jin, Wei Sun, Junjie Fang, Jianjun Zheng, Jie Tian. Advances in molecular imaging of immune checkpoint targets in malignancies: current and future prospect. European Radiology 2019, 29 (8) , 4294-4302.
    86. Xiaoyi Guo, Hua Zhu, Teli Liu, Xiaoxia Xu, Yan Kong, Sheng Yao, Xinan Sheng, Zhi Yang. Development of 99mTc-conjugated JS001 antibody for in vivo mapping of PD-1 distribution in murine. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2019, 29 (16) , 2178-2181.
    87. Angelo Castello, Egesta Lopci. Response assessment of bone metastatic disease: seeing the forest for the trees RECIST, PERCIST, iRECIST, and PCWG-2. The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2019, 63 (2)
    88. Mingyu Zhang, Huijie Jiang, Rongjun Zhang, Hao Jiang, Hailong Xu, Wenbin Pan, Xiaolin Gao, Zhongqi Sun. Near‐infrared fluorescence‐labeled anti‐PD‐L1‐mAb for tumor imaging in human colorectal cancer xenografted mice. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2019, 120 (6) , 10239-10247.
    89. Alberto Signore, Chiara Lauri, Sveva Auletta, Kelly Anzola, Filippo Galli, Massimiliano Casali, Annibale Versari, Andor W.J.M. Glaudemans. Immuno-Imaging to Predict Treatment Response in Infection, Inflammation and Oncology. Journal of Clinical Medicine 2019, 8 (5) , 681.
    90. Orazio Schillaci, Manuel Scimeca, Donata Trivigno, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Simone Facchetti, Lucia Anemona, Rita Bonfiglio, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Virginia Tancredi, Elena Bonanno, Nicoletta Urbano, Alessandro Mauriello. Prostate cancer and inflammation: A new molecular imaging challenge in the era of personalized medicine. Nuclear Medicine and Biology 2019, 68-69 , 66-79.
    91. Mizuki Nishino, Hiroto Hatabu, F. Stephen Hodi. Imaging of Cancer Immunotherapy: Current Approaches and Future Directions. Radiology 2019, 290 (1) , 9-22.
    92. Sofia Carrilho Vaz, Ana Sofia Capacho, Francisco P. Oliveira, Nuno Gil, Carla Teixeira Barros, António Parreira, Durval C. Costa. Radiopharmacology and molecular imaging of PD-L1 expression in cancer. Clinical and Translational Imaging 2018, 6 (6) , 429-439.
    93. Danni Li, Cheng Wang, Dakuan Zhang, Ye Peng, Shengnan Ren, Xiao Li, Changjing Zuo. Preliminary application of 125I–nivolumab to detect PD-1 expression in colon cancer via SPECT. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 2018, 318 (2) , 1237-1242.
    94. Elly L. van der Veen, Frederike Bensch, Andor W.J.M. Glaudemans, Marjolijn N. Lub-de Hooge, Elisabeth G.E. de Vries. Molecular imaging to enlighten cancer immunotherapies and underlying involved processes. Cancer Treatment Reviews 2018, 70 , 232-244.
    95. Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Leyla Moghaddasi, Eva Bezak. Imaging of Tumor Characteristics and Molecular Pathways With PET: Developments Over the Last Decade Toward Personalized Cancer Therapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics 2018, 102 (4) , 1165-1182.
    96. Gilbert O. Fruhwirth, Manfred Kneilling, I. Jolanda M. de Vries, Bettina Weigelin, Mangala Srinivas, Erik H. J. G. Aarntzen. The Potential of In Vivo Imaging for Optimization of Molecular and Cellular Anti-cancer Immunotherapies. Molecular Imaging and Biology 2018, 20 (5) , 696-704.
    97. Ariel E. Marciscano, Daniel L.J. Thorek. Role of noninvasive molecular imaging in determining response. Advances in Radiation Oncology 2018, 3 (4) , 534-547.
    98. Heather M. Gibson, Brooke N. McKnight, Agnes Malysa, Greg Dyson, Wendy N. Wiesend, Claire E. McCarthy, Joyce Reyes, Wei-Zen Wei, Nerissa T. Viola-Villegas. IFNγ PET Imaging as a Predictive Tool for Monitoring Response to Tumor Immunotherapy. Cancer Research 2018, 78 (19) , 5706-5717.
    99. Aaron T. Mayer, Sanjiv S. Gambhir. The Immunoimaging Toolbox. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2018, 59 (8) , 1174-1182.
    100. Svetomir N. Markovic, Filippo Galli, Vera J. Suman, Wendy K. Nevala, Andrew M. Paulsen, Joseph C. Hung, Denise N. Gansen, Lori A. Erickson, Paolo Marchetti, Gregory A. Wiseman, Alberto Signore. Non-invasive visualization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: a pilot study. Oncotarget 2018, 9 (54) , 30268-30278.
    Load all citations

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect