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Lysine as Size-Control Additive in a Bioinspired Synthesis of Pure Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles

Cite this: Cryst. Growth Des. 2020, 20, 2, 533–542
Publication Date (Web):January 8, 2020
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are being used in a number of nanotechnological applications, especially biomedical, both in diagnosis and in therapeutics such as hyperthermia agents and as drug nanocarriers for targeted chemotherapy. However, the development of efficient methodologies to produce novel MNPs with the specific requirements needed for biomedical applications is still challenging. In this context, biomimetic approaches taking use of magnetosome proteins expressed as recombinant and/or polyamino acids are becoming of great interest. In fact, these protocols give rise to magnetite nanoparticles of adequate size, magnetic properties and surface functionalization that make them compatible for biomedical applications. In this respect, herein we show for the first time that lysine (Lys), unlike other amino acids like arginine (Arg), is able to exert a control over the size of MNPs produced in water and at room temperature. This control occurs through the stabilization of the magnetite nuclei by the lateral ammonium group of Lys. The strength of such stabilization allows a further release of these previously bonded nuclei to allow the further growth of the larger ones, thus resulting in larger crystals compared to those obtained by using Arg or no amino acids at all. MNPs obtained by the mediation of this amino acid are fairly large (30 nm) while being superparamagnetic at room temperature. They present an isoelectric point of 4, which may allow the coupling/release of these MNPs to other molecules based on electrostatic interaction, a large magnetic moment per particle and high magnetization saturation. This study highlights the effects that biological additives have in the process of magnetite biomineralization and goes along the line of previous reports using magnetosome proteins and polyamino acids.

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    • Theoretical calculations, biomineralization experiments at pH = 10 and 11, and TGA experiments (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 10 publications.

    1. Anja Sadžak, Mihael Eraković, Suzana Šegota. Kinetics of Flavonoid Degradation and Controlled Release from Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles. Molecular Pharmaceutics 2023, 20 (10) , 5148-5159.
    2. Jiahui Wu, Meiqing Shi, Fan Feng, Junting Hao, Di Zhao, Xinya Wang, Jiawei Li, Wenchao Zhang, Qingwei Wang, Yong Ke, Xu Yan, Zhang Lin, Liyuan Chai. Recent Advances in Magnetite Crystallization: Pathway, Modulation, and Characterization. Crystal Growth & Design 2023, 23 (8) , 6201-6218.
    3. Mariia Savchenko, Victor Sebastian, Modesto Torcuato Lopez-Lopez, Alejandro Rodriguez-Navarro, Luis Alvarez De Cienfuegos, Concepcion Jimenez-Lopez, José Antonio Gavira. Magnetite Mineralization inside Cross-Linked Protein Crystals. Crystal Growth & Design 2023, 23 (6) , 4032-4040.
    4. Yanhong Zhou, Bo Zeng, Rui Zhou, Xialan Li, Guangya Zhang. One-Pot Synthesis of Multiple Stimuli-Responsive Magnetic Nanomaterials Based on the Biomineralization of Elastin-like Polypeptides. ACS Omega 2021, 6 (42) , 27946-27954.
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    6. Andreas Bogen Kristiansen, Nathan Church, Seniz Ucar. Investigation of magnetite particle characteristics in relation to crystallization pathways. Powder Technology 2023, 415 , 118145.
    7. Cezar Comanescu. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Current Advances in Nanomedicine, Drug Delivery and MRI. Chemistry 2022, 4 (3) , 872-930.
    8. Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny, Kholoud Arafa, Mostafa Fytory. Physical properties, classification, synthesis, and functionalization of magnetic nanomaterials. 2021, 3-21.
    9. Tarcisio Nascimento Correa, Igor Nunes Taveira, Rogerio Presciliano de Souza Filho, Fernanda de Avila Abreu. Biomineralization of Magnetosomes: Billion-Year Evolution Shaping Modern Nanotools. 2020
    10. Ana Peigneux, Jose D. Puentes-Pardo, Alejandro B. Rodríguez-Navarro, Maxwell T. Hincke, Concepción Jimenez-Lopez. Development and characterization of magnetic eggshell membranes for lead removal from wastewater. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2020, 192 , 110307.

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