ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
Recently Viewed
You have not visited any articles yet, Please visit some articles to see contents here.
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img
RETURN TO ISSUEPREVResearch ArticleNEXT

Use of 3-Dimensional Printers in Educational Settings: The Need for Awareness of the Effects of Printer Temperature and Filament Type on Contaminant Releases

  • Aleksandr B. Stefaniak*
    Aleksandr B. Stefaniak
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
    *Phone: +1-304-285-6302. E-mail: [email protected]
  • Lauren N. Bowers
    Lauren N. Bowers
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • Gabe Cottrell
    Gabe Cottrell
    School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania 15108, United States
  • Ergin Erdem
    Ergin Erdem
    School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania 15108, United States
    More by Ergin Erdem
  • Alycia K. Knepp
    Alycia K. Knepp
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • Stephen Martin
    Stephen Martin
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • Jack Pretty
    Jack Pretty
    Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio 45213, United States
    More by Jack Pretty
  • Matthew G. Duling
    Matthew G. Duling
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • Elizabeth D. Arnold
    Elizabeth D. Arnold
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • Zachary Wilson
    Zachary Wilson
    School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania 15108, United States
  • Benjamin Krider
    Benjamin Krider
    School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania 15108, United States
  • Ryan F. LeBouf
    Ryan F. LeBouf
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • M. Abbas Virji
    M. Abbas Virji
    Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, United States
  • , and 
  • Arif Sirinterlikci
    Arif Sirinterlikci
    School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pennsylvania 15108, United States
Cite this: ACS Chem. Health Saf. 2021, 28, 6, 444–456
Publication Date (Web):August 31, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.1c00041
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society
Article Views
1904
Altmetric
-
Citations
LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
Read OnlinePDF (7 MB)

Abstract

Abstract Image

Material extrusion-type fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3-D printing is a valuable tool for education. During FFF 3-D printing, thermal degradation of the polymer releases small particles and chemicals, many of which are hazardous to human health. In this study, particle and chemical emissions from 10 different filaments made from virgin (never printed) and recycled polymers were used to print the same object at the polymer manufacturer’s recommended nozzle temperature (“normal”) and at a temperature higher than recommended (“hot”) to simulate the real-world scenarios of a person intentionally or unknowingly printing on a machine with a changed setting. Emissions were evaluated in a college teaching laboratory using standard sampling and analytical methods. From mobility sizer measurements, particle number-based emission rates were 81 times higher; the proportion of ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) were 4% higher, and median particle sizes were a factor of 2 smaller for hot-temperature prints compared with normal-temperature prints (all p-values <0.05). There was no difference in emission characteristics between recycled and virgin acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid polymer filaments. Reducing contaminant release from FFF 3-D printers in educational settings can be achieved using the hierarchy of controls: (1) elimination/substitution (e.g., training students on principles of prevention-through-design, limiting the use of higher emitting polymer when possible); (2) engineering controls (e.g., using local exhaust ventilation to directly remove contaminants at the printer or isolating the printer from students); (3) administrative controls such as password protecting printer settings and establishing and enforcing adherence to a standard operating procedure based on a proper risk assessment for the setup and use (e.g., limiting the use of temperatures higher than those specified for the filaments used); and (4) maintenance of printers.

Cited By


This article is cited by 1 publications.

  1. Aleksandr B. Stefaniak, Lauren N. Bowers, Gabe Cottrell, Ergin Erdem, Alycia K. Knepp, Stephen B. Martin, Jack Pretty, Matthew G. Duling, Elizabeth D. Arnold, Zachary Wilson, Benjamin Krider, Alyson R. Fortner, Ryan F. LeBouf, M. Abbas Virji, Arif Sirinterlikci. Towards sustainable additive manufacturing: The need for awareness of particle and vapor releases during polymer recycling, making filament, and fused filament fabrication 3-D printing. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2022, 176 , 105911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105911

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect

This website uses cookies to improve your user experience. By continuing to use the site, you are accepting our use of cookies. Read the ACS privacy policy.

CONTINUE