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Room-Temperature Photodeposited Amorphous VOx Hole-Transport Layers for Organic Devices

  • Renaud Miclette Lamarche
    Renaud Miclette Lamarche
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
    Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
  • Akpeko Gasonoo
    Akpeko Gasonoo
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
  • Anderson Hoff
    Anderson Hoff
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
  • Roman Chernikov
    Roman Chernikov
    BIOXAS Beamline, Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 2 V3, Canada
  • Gregory C. Welch
    Gregory C. Welch
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
  • , and 
  • Simon Trudel*
    Simon Trudel
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
    Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
    *Email: [email protected]. Phone: +1.403.210.7078.
    More by Simon Trudel
Cite this: Chem. Mater. 2023, 35, 6, 2353–2362
Publication Date (Web):March 6, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.2c03305
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Hole-transport layers (HTLs) and hole-injection layers (HIL) are an integral part of optoelectronic devices such as organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). A class of materials commonly used as HTLs are metal oxides because they have high transparency and stability. These metal oxides are, however, often made using techniques that are not conducive to large-scale fabrication, a challenge that must be resolved for the widespread adoption of these devices. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a room-temperature, ambient photochemical deposition route to form vanadium oxide films. We show, using a combination of X-ray absorption and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies, that the VOx film consists of V2O5 but with a significant amount of V4+ present. These films are initially created amorphous and become nanocrystalline after annealing in air at a temperature of 250 °C. After incorporating these VOx thin films as HTLs in both OPV and OLED devices, we surprisingly find this increase in crystallinity does not translate to improvement in device performance. All devices perform similarly to─or better than─control devices using PEDOT:PSS as an HTL. We furthermore demonstrate that these films are not affected by the operation of these devices and that the technique can be employed in combination with slot-die coating printing techniques. This work provides an easily upscaled, low-temperature method for depositing metal-oxide HTL layers.

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    • Additional results including FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, XPS fitting results, UPS spectra, XAS, AFM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and device characterization (16−22,25,68) (PDF)

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