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ADDITION / CORRECTIONThis article has been corrected. View the notice.

Self-Assembly and Shape Control of Hybrid Nanocarriers Based on Calcium Carbonate and Carbon Nanodots

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Faculty of Production Engineering, Advanced Ceramics, University of Bremen, Bremen 28359, Germany
Department Drug Delivery, Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Saarbrücken 66123, Germany
§ Department of Pharmacy, Saarland University, Saarbrücken 66123, Germany
MAPEX − Centre for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen, Bremen 28359, Germany
Cite this: Chem. Mater. 2016, 28, 11, 3796–3803
Publication Date (Web):May 9, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    We describe a platform for the synthesis of functional hybrid nanoparticles in the submicrometer range with tailorable anisotropic morphology. Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) are used to modify the crystallization and assembly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Carboxylic groups on CDs sequester calcium ions and serve as templates for CaCO3 precipitation when carbonate is added. This creates primary CaCO3 nanoparticles, 7 nm in diameter, which self-assemble into spheres or rods depending on the PAA concentration. At increasing polymer concentration, oriented assembly becomes more prevalent yielding rod-like particles. The hybrid particles show colloidal stability in cell medium and absence of cytotoxicity as well as a loading efficiency of around 30% for Rhodamine B with pH-controlled release. Given the morphological control, simplicity of synthesis, and efficient loading capabilities the CD-CaCO3 system could serve as a novel platform for advanced drug carrier systems.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00769.

    • Composition of HBSS (S.I. 1), potentiometric titration (S.I. 2), fluorescence intensity as a function of time (S.I. 3), quantum yield of carbon nanodots (S.I. 4), scanning electron microscopy of CD-CaCO3 (S.I. 5), TEM micrographs of CD-CaCO3 mineralized with 15K and 100K PAA (S.I. 6), nitrogen absorption–desorption (S.I. 7), X-ray diffraction patterns (S.I. 8), and Ca2+ induced toxicity (S.I. 9) (PDF)

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