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Selected Standard Protocols for the Synthesis, Phase Transfer, and Characterization of Inorganic Colloidal Nanoparticles

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Fachbereich Physik, Philipps Universität Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany
CIC biomaGUNE, 20009 San Sebastian, Spain
§ Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC − Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Seville, Spain
Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
# Centro Singular de Investigación en Química Biológica y Materiales Moleculares (CiQUS) y Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240, China
Experimental Cancer Medicine (ECM), Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
*(W.J.P.) E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 1, 399–461
Publication Date (Web):December 12, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b04738
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Synthesis, characterization, and applications of colloidal nanoparticles have been a prominent topic of current research interests within the last two decades. Available reports in the literature that describe the synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles are abundant with various degrees of reproducibility and simplicity. Moreover, different methods for the characterization of colloidal nanoparticle’s basic properties are employed, resulting in conflicting results in many cases. Herein, we describe “in detail” selected standard protocols for the synthesis, purification, and characterization of various types of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles including gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, and quantum dots. This report consists of five main parts: The first and the second parts are dedicated to describing the synthesis of various types of hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanoparticles in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions, respectively. The third part describes surface modification of nanoparticles with a focus on ligand exchange reactions, to allow phase transfer of nanoparticles from aqueous to organic solvents and vice versa. The fourth and the fifth parts describe various general purification and characterization techniques used to purify and characterize nanoparticles, respectively. Collectively, this contribution does not aim to cover all available protocols in the literature to prepare inorganic nanoparticles but rather provides detailed synthetic procedures for important inorganic nanocrystals with a full description of their purification and characterization process.

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