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Magnetic Skyrmion Materials

Cite this: Chem. Rev. 2021, 121, 5, 2857–2897
Publication Date (Web):November 8, 2020
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Skyrmion, a concept originally proposed in particle physics half a century ago, can now find the most fertile field for its applicability, that is, the magnetic skyrmion realized in helimagnetic materials. The spin swirling vortex-like texture of the magnetic skyrmion can define the particle nature by topology; that is, all the constituent spin moments within the two-dimensional sheet wrap the sphere just one time. Such a topological nature of the magnetic skyrmion can lead to extraordinary metastability via topological protection and the driven motion with low electric-current excitation, which may promise future application to spintronics. The skyrmions in the magnetic materials frequently show up as the crystal lattice form, e.g., hexagonal lattice, but sometimes as isolated or independent particles. These skyrmions in magnets were initially found in acentric magnets, such as chiral, polar, and bilayered magnets endowed with antisymmetric spin exchange interaction, while the skyrmion host materials have been explored in a broader family of compounds including centrosymmetric magnets. This review describes the materials science and materials chemistry of magnetic skyrmions using the classification scheme of the skyrmion forming microscopic mechanisms. The emergent phenomena and functions mediated by skyrmions are described, including the generation of emergent magnetic and electric field by statics and dynamics of skrymions and the inherent magnetoelectric effect. The other important magnetic topological defects in two or three dimensions, such as biskyrmions, antiskyrmions, merons, and hedgehogs, are also reviewed in light of their interplay with the skyrmions.

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