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Photocatalytic Late-Stage C–H Functionalization

Cite this: Chem. Rev. 2023, 123, 8, 4237–4352
Publication Date (Web):January 24, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.2c00478
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    The emergence of modern photocatalysis, characterized by mildness and selectivity, has significantly spurred innovative late-stage C–H functionalization approaches that make use of low energy photons as a controllable energy source. Compared to traditional late-stage functionalization strategies, photocatalysis paves the way toward complementary and/or previously unattainable regio- and chemoselectivities. Merging the compelling benefits of photocatalysis with the late-stage functionalization workflow offers a potentially unmatched arsenal to tackle drug development campaigns and beyond. This Review highlights the photocatalytic late-stage C–H functionalization strategies of small-molecule drugs, agrochemicals, and natural products, classified according to the targeted C–H bond and the newly formed one. Emphasis is devoted to identifying, describing, and comparing the main mechanistic scenarios. The Review draws a critical comparison between established ionic chemistry and photocatalyzed radical-based manifolds. The Review aims to establish the current state-of-the-art and illustrate the key unsolved challenges to be addressed in the future. The authors aim to introduce the general readership to the main approaches toward photocatalytic late-stage C–H functionalization, and specialist practitioners to the critical evaluation of the current methodologies, potential for improvement, and future uncharted directions.

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