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Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research

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X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States
Cite this: Chem. Rev. 2016, 116, 18, 11128–11180
Publication Date (Web):April 7, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00690
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

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X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and angstrom length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle’s size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchical structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well as the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X-ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-ray scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.

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