Combined High-Resolution Solid-State 1H/13C NMR Spectroscopy and 1H NMR Relaxometry for the Characterization of Kerogen Thermal Maturation
- Francesco PanattoniFrancesco PanattoniDepartment of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Rd, Cambridge CB2 1EW, U.K.More by Francesco Panattoni
- Jonathan MitchellJonathan MitchellSchlumberger Cambridge Research, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0EL, U.K.More by Jonathan Mitchell
- Edmund J. FordhamEdmund J. FordhamSchlumberger Cambridge Research, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0EL, U.K.More by Edmund J. Fordham
- Ravinath Kausik
- Clare P. Grey
- , and
- Pieter C. M. M. Magusin*
A key factor for the petroleum potential of source rock is the degree of chemical and physical structure evolution of its kerogen fraction through a range of maturation processes. In this study, various high-field, solid-state NMR methods have been applied to a series of kerogen isolates (type I) over a defined maturity range (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.98 to 1.86%). Results obtained from 13C MAS NMR show that the sp2/sp3-hybridized carbon ratio of kerogen, here defined as the aromatic/aliphatic ratio, increases with increasing maturity. 1H MAS NMR spectra contain partly overlapping aliphatic and aromatic resonances with distinct transverse relaxation behavior. In Hahn-echo experiments, the aromatic signal decays more slowly than the aliphatic signal, indicating that for these systems, transverse 1H relaxation is rather controlled by local distances between hydrogen atoms than by molecular mobility. Similar relaxation differences are also found in static (nonspinning) 1H Hahn-echo NMR experiments, here used to discriminate between phases with different proton mobilities and/or densities in the kerogen samples and, ultimately, between aromatic and aliphatic fractions. The distributions of the static transverse relaxation time (T2), extracted from the Hahn-echo decays, are characterized by a short-T2 peak (∼10 μs) and a long-T2 peak (∼100 μs). The ratio between these two peaks correlates well with the aliphatic-to-aromatic signal intensity ratios in MAS NMR spectra of the corresponding kerogen samples, suggesting that a net decrease in kerogen proton density—occurring during maturation—is also reflected by 1H NMR relaxation. For the investigated kerogen isolates, the long-T2 peak in the T2 distribution can be considered an indicator of aromatic content, which can be directly detected by measuring 1H T2 relaxation.
This article is cited by 5 publications.
- Bao Jia, Chenggang Xian, Jyun-Syung Tsau, Xuan Zuo, Wenfeng Jia. Status and Outlook of Oil Field Chemistry-Assisted Analysis during the Energy Transition Period. Energy & Fuels 2022, 36 (21) , 12917-12945. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c02749
- Emilia V. Silletta, Gerardo Martinez Delfa, Manuel I. Velasco, Jorge A. Donadelli, Gustavo A. Monti, Clara Smal, Rodolfo H. Acosta. Quantification of Imbibed Heptane in Shale Rocks Determined by Edited T1–T2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Experiments at High Magnetic Field. Energy & Fuels 2022, 36 (18) , 10794-10802. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c01554
- Murilo T. Suekuni, Paul R. Craddock, Justin T. Douglas, Andrew E. Pomerantz, Alan M. Allgeier. Critical Practices for the Preparation and Analysis of Kerogen. Energy & Fuels 2022, 36 (16) , 8828-8843. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c01063
- Mahmoud Elsayed, Abubakar Isah, Moaz Hiba, Amjed Hassan, Karem Al-Garadi, Mohamed Mahmoud, Ammar El-Husseiny, Ahmed E. Radwan. A review on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the oil and gas industry: laboratory and field-scale measurements. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology 2022, 12 (10) , 2747-2784. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-022-01476-3
- Jiangfeng Guo, Bryce MacMillan, Mohammad Sadegh Zamiri, Bruce J. Balcom. Two dimensional 1H magnetic resonance relaxometry-based analyses of Argonne premium coals. Fuel 2021, 302 , 121106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121106