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RETURN TO ISSUEPREVBatteries and Energy...Batteries and Energy StorageNEXT

Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Properties of an Average Thermal Runaway Gas Mixture from Li-Ion Batteries

  • Olivier Mathieu*
    Olivier Mathieu
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
  • Claire M. Grégoire
    Claire M. Grégoire
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
  • Mattias A. Turner
    Mattias A. Turner
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
  • Darryl J. Mohr
    Darryl J. Mohr
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
  • Sulaiman A. Alturaifi
    Sulaiman A. Alturaifi
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
  • James C. Thomas
    James C. Thomas
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
  • , and 
  • Eric L. Petersen
    Eric L. Petersen
    J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States
Cite this: Energy Fuels 2022, 36, 6, 3247–3258
Publication Date (Web):February 23, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.1c04057
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    To assess the fire hazard associated with venting gases coming from a lithium-ion battery during a thermal runaway, a mixture representative of such venting gas was determined by averaging 40 gas compositions presented in the literature. The final mixture is composed of C3H8, C2H6, C2H4, CH4, H2, CO, and CO2. The combustion properties of this mixture were determined using various combustion devices: shock tubes for ignition delay time measurements in air and for H2O time histories in very dilute mixtures (99% Ar), as well as a closed bomb to measure the laminar flame speeds. Experiments were performed at around atmospheric pressure and for several equivalence ratios in all cases. Several detailed kinetics models from the literature were assessed against the data generated with this very complex mixture, and it was found that modern detailed kinetics mechanisms were capable of appropriately predicting the combustion properties of thermal runaway gases from a battery in most cases, with the NUIGMech 1.1 model being the most accurate. A numerical analysis was conducted with the two most modern models to explain the results and highlight the most important reactions.

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    • Ignition delay time, H2O induction delay times, laminar flame speeds, and Markstein lengths (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 9 publications.

    1. Shunrui Zhang, Ligang Zheng, Jian Wang, Xiangyu Shao, Xi Wang, Qiankun Luo, Yanfeng Li, Shuaiyong Tang. Laminar Combustion Characteristics of Spherically Propagating Ethyl Methyl Carbonate Flames. Energy & Fuels 2024, 38 (11) , 10156-10167. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00973
    2. Phuoc-Anh Le, Dinh Trung Vuong, Jun Natsuki, Toshiaki Natsuki. Overview of the Thermal Runaway in Lithium-Ion Batteries with Application in Electric Vehicles: Working Principles, Early Warning, and Future Outlooks. Energy & Fuels 2023, 37 (22) , 17052-17074. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c02548
    3. Nagaraj P. Shetti, Amit Mishra, Soumen Basu, Tejraj M. Aminabhavi, Abdullah Alodhayb, Saravanan Pandiaraj. MXenes as Li-Ion Battery Electrodes: Progress and Outlook. Energy & Fuels 2023, 37 (17) , 12541-12557. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c01346
    4. Ze Wang, Lei Zhu, Jianwei Liu, Jianan Wang, Wei Yan. Gas Sensing Technology for the Detection and Early Warning of Battery Thermal Runaway: A Review. Energy & Fuels 2022, 36 (12) , 6038-6057. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c01121
    5. Claire M. Grégoire, Sean P. Cooper, Maryam Khan-Ghauri, Sulaiman A. Alturaifi, Eric L. Petersen, Olivier Mathieu. Pyrolysis study of dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and ethyl methyl carbonate using shock-tube spectroscopic CO measurements and chemical kinetics investigation. Combustion and Flame 2023, 249 , 112594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2022.112594
    6. Laifeng Song, Zonghou Huang, Wenxin Mei, Zhuangzhuang Jia, Yin Yu, Qingsong Wang, Kaiqiang Jin. Thermal runaway propagation behavior and energy flow distribution analysis of 280 Ah LiFePO4 battery. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 2023, 170 , 1066-1078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2022.12.082
    7. Ruiguang Yu, Jie Liu, Yingtao Wu, Chenglong Tang, Wenkai Liang, Hewu Wang, Minggao Ouyang. Experimental and modeling study of the ignition kinetics of dimethyl carbonate. Combustion and Flame 2022, 246 , 112465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2022.112465
    8. Rujia Fan, Zhirong Wang, Yawei Lu, Chendi Lin, Wenjie Guo. Numerical analysis on the combustion characteristic of lithium-ion battery vent gases and the suppression effect. Fuel 2022, 330 , 125450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2022.125450
    9. Yawen Li, Lihua Jiang, Zonghou Huang, Zhuangzhuang Jia, Peng Qin, Qingsong Wang. Pressure Effect on the Thermal Runaway Behaviors of Lithium-Ion Battery in Confined Space. Fire Technology 2022, 10 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-022-01296-1