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Different Hydrocarbon Types in Jet Fuel as Determined by GCxGC/FID - An Alternative Method to D2425

Cite this: Energy Fuels 2023, 37, 9, 6629–6641
Publication Date (Web):April 21, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c00774
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    The ASTM D2425 Standard Test Method for the determination of different hydrocarbon types in middle distillates by using mass spectrometry is a required test for the certification of various sustainable (not petroleum derived) aviation fuels according to ASTM D7566. However, recent studies show that the D2425 method updated in 2019 does not provide accurate results for a synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) made from hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA). A promising alternative to the D2425 method for the analysis of different hydrocarbon types in both conventional jet fuel (Jet A-1) and SPK-HEFA type sustainable aviation fuel is presented here. The new method is based on GCxGC/FID technology. The performance of the new method is demonstrated by a validation study, which suggests that the GCxGC/FID method is rugged and selective, and it can be used to accurately quantify 12 different hydrocarbon types with a wide content range in both conventional Jet A-1 and SPK-HEFA type sustainable aviation fuel samples.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c00774.

    • Chemicals used during method development, determination of the purity of the model compounds, measurement of the response factors for the model compounds for the GCxGC/FID instrument, determining the appropriate concentrations of jet fuel sample solutions for analysis (i.e., the concentration of the sample solution to be injected into the GCxGC/FID upon analysis), classification of peaks in the GCxGC/EI TOF MS chromatogram and GCxGC/FID chromatogram for Jet A-1 and sustainable aviation fuel, and retention times of some compounds in the Jet A-1 sample from each hydrocarbon type (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 1 publications.

    1. K. Elias Ikonen, Lauren Blaudeau, Wanru Li, Gozdem Kilaz, Hilkka I. Kenttämaa. Comparison of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector and D2425 Methods in the Analysis of Different Hydrocarbon Types in Jet Fuel. Energy & Fuels 2024, 38 (11) , 9804-9813. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00678