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Comparison of the Effects of Extraction Techniques on Mass Spectrometry Profiles of Dissolved Organic Compounds in Oil Sand Process-Affected Water

  • Hattan A. Alharbi
    Hattan A. Alharbi
    Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
  • Garrett D. Morandi
    Garrett D. Morandi
    Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada
  • Paul D. Jones
    Paul D. Jones
    Toxicology Centre  and  School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada
  • Steve B. Wiseman
    Steve B. Wiseman
    Department of Biological Sciences and Water Institute for Sustainable Environments (WISE), University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4, Canada
  • , and 
  • John P. Giesy*
    John P. Giesy
    Toxicology Centre  and  Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada
    Zoology Department, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
    *E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Energy Fuels 2019, 33, 8, 7001–7008
Publication Date (Web):July 18, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b00813
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry have facilitated chemical characterization and profiling of complex environmental mixtures such as oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) and identification of previously unresolved chemicals. However, because OSPW is a complex mixture of salts, metals, suspended particulate matter, and dissolved organics, extraction techniques are required to reduce the effects of signal suppression/enhancement. In this work, Orbitrap, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was used to perform a comprehensive comparison of solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) techniques on profiling of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW. When operated in negative ion mode, extraction of naphthenic acid (NAs–O2) was dependent on acidification of OSPW samples for C18 and LLE techniques. However, when applying a hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) sorbent (ABN) SPE technique, the extractability of NAs was independent of pH. When operated in positive ion mode, for all extraction methods, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species were more abundant and diverse in basic extracts than in acidic extracts and ABN extracted the greatest number of chemical species including nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing species. Overall, this study supports the utility of HLB SPE techniques for profiling of species of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW at environmentally relevant pH.

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 8 publications.

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    2. Hattan A. Alharbi, Steve B. Wiseman, John P. Giesy. Effects of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water on Measured Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. ACS ES&T Water 2021, 1 (3) , 698-706. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.0c00183
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