Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect
ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Comparison of the Effects of Extraction Techniques on Mass Spectrometry Profiles of Dissolved Organic Compounds in Oil Sand Process-Affected Water

  • Hattan A. Alharbi
    Hattan A. Alharbi
    Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
  • Garrett D. Morandi
    Garrett D. Morandi
    Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada
  • Paul D. Jones
    Paul D. Jones
    Toxicology Centre  and  School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada
  • Steve B. Wiseman
    Steve B. Wiseman
    Department of Biological Sciences and Water Institute for Sustainable Environments (WISE), University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4, Canada
  • , and 
  • John P. Giesy*
    John P. Giesy
    Toxicology Centre  and  Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B3, Canada
    Zoology Department, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States
    State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, People’s Republic of China
    *E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Energy Fuels 2019, 33, 8, 7001–7008
Publication Date (Web):July 18, 2019
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options


    Recent advances in mass spectrometry have facilitated chemical characterization and profiling of complex environmental mixtures such as oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) and identification of previously unresolved chemicals. However, because OSPW is a complex mixture of salts, metals, suspended particulate matter, and dissolved organics, extraction techniques are required to reduce the effects of signal suppression/enhancement. In this work, Orbitrap, ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was used to perform a comprehensive comparison of solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) techniques on profiling of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW. When operated in negative ion mode, extraction of naphthenic acid (NAs–O2) was dependent on acidification of OSPW samples for C18 and LLE techniques. However, when applying a hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) sorbent (ABN) SPE technique, the extractability of NAs was independent of pH. When operated in positive ion mode, for all extraction methods, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species were more abundant and diverse in basic extracts than in acidic extracts and ABN extracted the greatest number of chemical species including nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing species. Overall, this study supports the utility of HLB SPE techniques for profiling of species of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW at environmentally relevant pH.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 8 publications.

    1. Marcella F. Rodrigues, Rosineide C. Simas, Nerilson M. Lima, Rosana C. L. Pereira, Gabriel H. M. Dufrayer, Michel M. F. Vieira, Rogério M. de Carvalho, Iris Medeiros Júnior, Gabriel F. dos Santos, Boniek G. Vaz. Comprehensive Analysis of Oxy-Naphthenic Acids in Produced Water via Liquid–Liquid Extraction and Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry. Energy & Fuels 2023, 37 (21) , 16378-16387.
    2. Hattan A. Alharbi, Steve B. Wiseman, John P. Giesy. Effects of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water on Measured Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. ACS ES&T Water 2021, 1 (3) , 698-706.
    3. Markus Brinkmann, Hattan Alharbi, Ulyana Fuchylo, Steve Wiseman, Garrett Morandi, Hui Peng, John P. Giesy, Paul D. Jones, Markus Hecker. Mechanisms of pH-Dependent Uptake of Ionizable Organic Chemicals by Fish from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water (OSPW). Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (15) , 9547-9555.
    4. Wenlong Cui, Qingqing Zhu, Chenze Zhao, Weiyou Zhou, Cheli Wang. Solvent Extraction for Separation of Indonesian Oil Sands. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2023, 20 (5) , 4527.
    5. Roselaine Facanali, Nathália de A. Porto, Juliana Crucello, Rogerio M. Carvalho, Boniek G. Vaz, Leandro W. Hantao, . Naphthenic Acids: Formation, Role in Emulsion Stability, and Recent Advances in Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry 2021, 2021 , 1-15.
    6. Nathália de Aguiar Porto, Juliana Crucello, Roselaine Facanali, Iris Medeiros Junior, Rogerio Mesquita Carvalho, Leandro Wang Hantao. Profiling naphthenic acids in produced water using hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2021, 1655 , 462485.
    7. Chukwuemeka Ajaero, Ian Vander Meulen, Monique C. Simair, Mignon le Roux, Joanne Parrott, Kerry M. Peru, Dena W. McMartin, John V. Headley. Developments in Molecular Level Characterization of Naphthenic Acid Fraction Compounds Degradation in a Constructed Wetland Treatment System. Environments 2020, 7 (10) , 89.
    8. Mohamed N.A. Meshref, Mohamed D. Ibrahim, Rongfu Huang, Lingling Yang, Zuo Tong How, Nikolaus Klamerth, Pamela Chelme-Ayala, Sarah A. Hughes, Christine Brown, Ashley Mahaffey, Mohamed Gamal El-Din. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a surrogate tool for the quantification of naphthenic acids in oil sands process water and groundwater. Science of The Total Environment 2020, 734 , 139191.