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Are Environmentally Friendly Fireworks Really “Green” for Air Quality? A Study from the 2019 National Day Fireworks Display in Shenzhen

  • Shidong Fan
    Shidong Fan
    Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
    Center for the Oceanic and Atmospheric Science at SUSTech (COAST), Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
    More by Shidong Fan
  • Ying Li*
    Ying Li
    Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
    Center for the Oceanic and Atmospheric Science at SUSTech (COAST), Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Ying Li
  • , and 
  • Chanfang Liu
    Chanfang Liu
    Shenzhen Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenzhen 518049, China
    More by Chanfang Liu
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2021, 55, 6, 3520–3529
Publication Date (Web):March 3, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03521
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Fireworks are widely used around the world and can cause severe air pollution over a short period of time. Many efforts have been carried out worldwide to reduce the level of firework-generated air pollution, such as limiting the use of fireworks and developing environmentally friendly fireworks. Research has suggested that the use of environmentally friendly charges in fireworks can reduce emissions, although their impact on ambient air quality has not been quantified. Here, we used a chemical transport model to study the benefits of environmentally friendly fireworks in reducing ambient PM2.5 based on a detailed estimation of emissions from fireworks and dense observations available for simulation validation. Our results showed that environmentally friendly fireworks can reduce ambient PM2.5 by ∼50% (in the range of 15–65% with a “central” value of 35% considering uncertainties) compared with traditional fireworks. However, due to a large number of fireworks used, the air quality still significantly deteriorated, and the effect of using twice the amount of environmentally friendly fireworks on air quality would be comparable to the use of traditional fireworks. Our results indicate that environmentally friendly fireworks are not actually “green”. To make them green, the total number of fireworks used at one time must be strictly restricted.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.0c03521.

    • Details about the estimation of emissions (S1), algorithms of dispersion in CMAQ (S2), validation of the general performance of the modeling system (S3), uncertainty analysis (S4), two types of fireworks (Figure S1), modeling domains (Figure S2), response PM2.5 in sim_low and sim_normal at different distances from the source (Figure S3), box (with scatter) plot of wind direction and speed at 54 meteorological stations (Figure S4), positions of the 54 stations in Figure S4 (Figure S5), model performance metrics (Table S1), uncertainties (Table S2), emission reduction with respect to different estimated parameters (S3), emissions distributed along heights (Table S4), and parameters of the linear regressions of sim_normal (Table S5) (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 12 publications.

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    2. Wenhua Wang, Hui Zhou, Yutao Gao, Longyi Shao, Xiuyan Zhou, Xian Li, Dongqing Wei, Jiaoping Xing, Ruihe Lyu. Chemical composition and morphology of PM2.5 in a rural valley during Chinese New Year's Eve: Impact of firework/firecracker display. Atmospheric Environment 2024, 318 , 120225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.120225
    3. Xinzhan Liu, Ling Yang, Yan Wang, Pengfei Yan, Yimeng Lu. Effects of Fireworks Burning on Air Quality during the Chinese Spring Festival—Evidence from Zhengzhou, China. Toxics 2024, 12 (1) , 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics12010023
    4. Jiujiu Li. Harm Of Discharging Fireworks and Harm Reduction Measures. Highlights in Science, Engineering and Technology 2023, 69 , 644-649. https://doi.org/10.54097/hset.v69i.13778
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    6. Peter Brimblecombe, Yonghang Lai. Particulate Pollution from New Year Fireworks in Honolulu. Environments 2023, 10 (4) , 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments10040068
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    9. René Parra, Claudia Saud, Claudia Espinoza. Simulating PM2.5 Concentrations during New Year in Cuenca, Ecuador: Effects of Advancing the Time of Burning Activities. Toxics 2022, 10 (5) , 264. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10050264
    10. Suraj Junghare, Shilpa Kumari, Avinash Chaudhary, Rakesh Kumar, Sadhana Rayalu. Thermite reaction driven pyrotechnic formulation with promising functional performance and reduced emissions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2022, 424 , 127345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127345
    11. Shidong Fan, Ying Li. The impacts of marine-emitted halogens on OH radicals in East Asia during summer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2022, 22 (11) , 7331-7351. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-22-7331-2022
    12. Yi Cheng, Shaofei Kong, Liquan Yao, Huang Zheng, Jian Wu, Qin Yan, Shurui Zheng, Yao Hu, Zhenzhen Niu, Yingying Yan, Zhenxing Shen, Guofeng Shen, Dantong Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Shihua Qi. Multiyear emissions of carbonaceous aerosols from cooking, fireworks, sacrificial incense, joss paper burning, and barbecue as well as their key driving forces in China. Earth System Science Data 2022, 14 (10) , 4757-4775. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-14-4757-2022

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