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Using Algal Virus Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus as a Human Adenovirus Surrogate for Validation of UV Treatment Systems

  • Zhe Sun
    Zhe Sun
    Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    More by Zhe Sun
  • Jianing Fu
    Jianing Fu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    More by Jianing Fu
  • Xing Li
    Xing Li
    Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    More by Xing Li
  • Ernest R. Blatchley III*
    Ernest R. Blatchley, III
    Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
  • , and 
  • Zhi Zhou*
    Zhi Zhou
    Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Zhi Zhou
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 23, 15507–15515
Publication Date (Web):November 9, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06354
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Adenovirus is among the most UV-resistant waterborne human pathogens. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogates for adenovirus for the water treatment industry. In this study, the feasibility of using the algal virus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) as an adenovirus surrogate for validation of UV reactors was evaluated. The UV dose–response behavior of PBCV-1 to monochromatic UV radiation at 254 nm and action spectrum for wavelengths ranging from 214 to 289 nm were measured. A culture-based infectivity assay was used to evaluate viral inactivation, and a quantitative PCR assay was used to quantify DNA damage. A UV254 dose of 150 mJ/cm2 resulted in roughly 5-log10 units of reduction of PBCV-1, which is similar to that of adenovirus. Furthermore, the inactivation action spectrum of PBCV-1 was similar to that of adenovirus between 214 and 289 nm. A simplified and inexpensive prepurification method was also developed to prepare PBCV-1 viral suspensions with similar inactivation behavior to purified PBCV-1. Overall, PBCV-1 appears to represent an appropriate adenovirus surrogate for UV system performance evaluation and illustrates the potential of using algal viruses as nonpathogenic, easy to culture, and readily available surrogates for human pathogens.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.0c06354.

    • Table S1, structural and genome characteristics of PBCV-1, HAdV, bacteriophage PR772, and bacteriophage MS2; Table S2, wavelength-dependent inactivation constant rates of PBCV-1; Table S3, UV transmittance values at different wavelengths for prepurified suspensions; Table S4, wavelength-dependent inactivation rate constants for purified and prepurified PBCV-1; Figure S1, qPCR calibration curve for the 574 bp amplicon used in this study; Figure S2, qPCR products verified by gel electrophoresis; Figure S3, transmittance spectra of narrow bandpass optical filters; Figure S4, wavelength-dependent inactivation behavior of purified and prepurified PBCV-1 (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 5 publications.

    1. Ernest R. Blatchley, III, Haiying Cui. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Quantification of the Effects of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation on COVID-19 Transmission. Environmental Science & Technology 2023, 57 (45) , 17393-17403. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c03026
    2. Zhe Sun, Mengkai Li, Wentao Li, Zhimin Qiang. A review of the fluence determination methods for UV reactors: Ensuring the reliability of UV disinfection. Chemosphere 2022, 286 , 131488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131488
    3. Alisha Geldert, Alison Su, Allison W. Roberts, Guillaume Golovkine, Samantha M. Grist, Sarah A. Stanley, Amy E. Herr. Mapping of UV-C dose and SARS-CoV-2 viral inactivation across N95 respirators during decontamination. Scientific Reports 2021, 11 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98121-6
    4. Kumiko Oguma, Surapong Rattanakul. UV inactivation of viruses in water: its potential to mitigate current and future threats of viral infectious diseases. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2021, 60 (11) , 110502. https://doi.org/10.35848/1347-4065/ac2b4f
    5. Qilin Wang, Xinyu Mao, Xiaosan Jiang, Dandan Pei, Xiaohou Shao, . Digital image processing technology under backpropagation neural network and K-Means Clustering algorithm on nitrogen utilization rate of Chinese cabbages. PLOS ONE 2021, 16 (3) , e0248923. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248923