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Occupational Exposures to Phthalates among Black and Latina U.S. Hairdressers Serving an Ethnically Diverse Clientele: A Pilot Study

  • Meleah D. Boyle
    Meleah D. Boyle
    Maryland Institute of Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States
  • Lucy K. Kavi
    Lucy K. Kavi
    Maryland Institute of Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States
    More by Lucy K. Kavi
  • Lydia M. Louis
    Lydia M. Louis
    Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health & Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States
  • Walkiria Pool
    Walkiria Pool
    Centro de Apoyo Familiar, Hyatsville, Maryland 20737, United States
  • Amir Sapkota
    Amir Sapkota
    Maryland Institute of Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States
    More by Amir Sapkota
  • Linyan Zhu
    Linyan Zhu
    Maryland Institute of Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States
    More by Linyan Zhu
  • Anna Z. Pollack
    Anna Z. Pollack
    Department of Global and Community Health, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030, United States
  • Stephen Thomas
    Stephen Thomas
    Maryland Center for Health Equity, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States
  • Ana M. Rule
    Ana M. Rule
    Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health & Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States
    More by Ana M. Rule
  • , and 
  • Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá*
    Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá
    Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health & Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States
    *Email: [email protected]. Phone: (410) 614-4989.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2021, 55, 12, 8128–8138
Publication Date (Web):June 2, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00427
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Hairdressers may be differentially exposed to phthalates through hair salon services provided and products used, yet no U.S. studies have investigated these exposures in this population. We characterized concentrations and exposure determinants to nine phthalate metabolites in postshift urine samples among 23 hairdressers from three Black and three Dominican salons, as well as a comparison group of 17 female office workers from the Maryland/Washington D.C. metropolitan area. Overall, hairdressers had higher metabolite concentrations than office workers. The geometric mean (GM) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was 10 times higher in hairdressers (161.4 ng/mL) than office workers (15.3 ng/mL). Hairdressers providing select services and using certain products had higher GM MEP concentrations than those who did not: permanent waves/texturizing (200.2 vs 115.4 ng/mL), chemical straightening/relaxing (181.6 vs 92.1 ng/mL), bleaching (182.3 vs 71.6 ng/mL), permanent hair color (171.9 vs 83.2 ng/mL), and Brazilian blowout/keratin treatments (181.4 vs 134.6 ng/mL). Interestingly, hairdressers providing natural services had lower GM MEP concentrations than those who did not: twists (129.1 vs 215.8 ng/mL), sister locs/locs (86.0 vs 241.9 ng/mL), and afros (94.7 vs 203.9 ng/mL). Larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings and identify disparities in occupational phthalate exposures.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.1c00427.

    • Additional tables including a description of hair salon services, summary statistics for uncorrected phthalate metabolite concentrations, summary statistics for phthalate metabolite concentrations by the type of salon, and specific gravity-corrected GM phthalate metabolite concentrations for hair salon services provided on the day of biospecimen collection (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 9 publications.

    1. Amélie C. Lemay, Ethan J. Sontarp, Daniela Martinez, Philip Maruri, Raneem Mohammed, Ryan Neapole, Morgan Wiese, Jennifer A. R. Willemsen, Ian C. Bourg. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Prediction of the Partitioning Constants (KH, Kiw, Kia) of 82 Legacy and Emerging Organic Contaminants at the Water–Air Interface. Environmental Science & Technology 2023, 57 (15) , 6296-6308. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c00267
    2. Zhihan Sun, Wanlin Guo, Chi-Kong Chan, Long Jin, Stephen M. Griffith, Jian Zhen Yu, Wan Chan. Polyurethane Foam Face Masks as a Dosimeter for Quantifying Personal Exposure to Airborne Volatile and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2022, 35 (9) , 1604-1613. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.2c00205
    3. Matthew N. Newmeyer, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Lucy K. Kavi, Lydia M. Louis, Carsten Prasse. Implementing a suspect screening method to assess occupational chemical exposures among US-based hairdressers serving an ethnically diverse clientele: a pilot study. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2023, 33 (4) , 566-574. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41370-023-00519-z
    4. Biru Chen, Lei Li, Qianqian Yang, Bolin Liu, Yue Hu, Mingcui Zhang. Fluorescence Signal Amplification: Red Carbon Dots@SiO2-Induced Ultra-sensitive Immunoassay for Diethyl Phthalate. Journal of Fluorescence 2023, 33 (2) , 487-495. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10895-022-03100-3
    5. Rachel Braz Arcanjo, Marcos Costa Vieira, Mayandi Sivaguru, Romana A. Nowak. Impact of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the development of mouse embryo in vitro. Reproductive Toxicology 2023, 115 , 111-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2022.12.007
    6. Kathryn R. Dalton, Lydia M. Louis, Magdalena Fandiño-Del-Rio, Ana M. Rule, Walkiria Pool, Katrina Randolph, Stephen Thomas, Meghan F. Davis, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá. Microbiome alterations from volatile organic compounds (VOC) exposures among workers in salons primarily serving women of color. Environmental Research 2022, 214 , 114125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.114125
    7. Firuza Rajesh Parikh, Shonali Uttamchandani, Nandkishor Naik, Madhavi Panpalia, Mangesh Sanap, Dhananjaya Kulkarni, Prachi Sinkar, Pratiksha Khandare, Prashant Makwana, Smita Gawas, Anahita Pandole, Rajesh Parikh. Significant changes in follicular fluid phthalate metabolite levels reflect the lifestyle changes brought about by the strict COVID-19 lockdown in India. F&S Science 2022, 3 (3) , 237-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xfss.2022.06.001
    8. Yanru Huo, Zexiu An, Mingxue Li, Jianfei Sun, Jinchan Jiang, Yuxin Zhou, Maoxia He. The reaction laws and toxicity effects of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) ozonation degradation on the troposphere. Environmental Pollution 2022, 295 , 118692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118692
    9. Yanru Huo, Zexiu An, Mingxue Li, Jianfei Sun, Jinchan Jiang, Yuxin Zhou, Maoxia He. What are the Reaction Laws and Toxicity Effects of Phthalate Acid Esters (PAEs) Ozonation Degradation in the Troposphere?. SSRN Electronic Journal 2021, 35 https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3935591

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