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Assessing Marine Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the Critically Endangered California Condor: Implications for Reintroduction to Coastal Environments

  • Margaret E. Stack
    Margaret E. Stack
    San Diego State University Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92182, United States
  • Jennifer M. Cossaboon
    Jennifer M. Cossaboon
    School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, United States
  • Christopher W. Tubbs
    Christopher W. Tubbs
    Conservation Science Wildlife Health, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California 92027, United States
  • L. Ignacio Vilchis
    L. Ignacio Vilchis
    Conservation Science Wildlife Health, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California 92027, United States
  • Rachel G. Felton
    Rachel G. Felton
    Conservation Science Wildlife Health, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, California 92027, United States
  • Jade L. Johnson
    Jade L. Johnson
    School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, United States
  • Kerri Danil
    Kerri Danil
    Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, California 92037, United States
    More by Kerri Danil
  • Gisela Heckel
    Gisela Heckel
    Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico
  • Eunha Hoh
    Eunha Hoh
    School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, United States
    More by Eunha Hoh
  • , and 
  • Nathan G. Dodder*
    Nathan G. Dodder
    San Diego State University Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92182, United States
    School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, United States
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2022, 56, 12, 7800–7809
Publication Date (Web):May 17, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c07302
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Coastal reintroduction sites for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) can lead to elevated halogenated organic compound (HOC) exposure and potential health impacts due to the consumption of scavenged marine mammals. Using nontargeted analysis based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS), we compared HOC profiles of plasma from inland and coastal scavenging California condors from the state of California (CA), and marine mammal blubber from CA and the Gulf of California off Baja California (BC), Mexico. We detected more HOCs in coastal condors (32 ± 5, mean number of HOCs ± SD, n = 7) than in inland condors (8 ± 1, n = 10) and in CA marine mammals (136 ± 87, n = 25) than in BC marine mammals (55 ± 46, n = 8). ∑DDT-related compounds, ∑PCBs, and total tris(chlorophenyl)methane (∑TCPM) were, respectively, ∼7, ∼3.5, and ∼148 times more abundant in CA than in BC marine mammals. The endocrine-disrupting potential of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners, TCPM, and TCPMOH was determined by in vitro California condor estrogen receptor (ER) activation. The higher levels of HOCs in coastal condors compared to those in inland condors and lower levels of HOC contamination in Baja California marine mammals compared to those from the state of California are factors to consider in condor reintroduction efforts.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.1c07302.

    • Additional experimental details, methods, figures, and tables as mentioned in the text in SI-1 (PDF)

    • The mass spectra of unknown compounds identified exclusively in the BC marine mammals can be found in SI-2 (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 4 publications.

    1. Jade L. Johnson, Nathan G. Dodder, Natalie Mladenov, Lauren Steinberg, William H. Richardot, Eunha Hoh. Comparison of Trace Organic Chemical Removal Efficiencies between Aerobic and Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors Treating Municipal Wastewater. ACS ES&T Water 2024, 4 (4) , 1381-1392. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.3c00542
    2. Jacob T. Schmidt, Mong Sin Christine Wu, Hailie E. Kittner, J. Samuel Arey, Douglas E. Hammond, Earth 182A GroupDavid L. Valentine. Disentangling the History of Deep Ocean Disposal for DDT and Other Industrial Waste Off Southern California. Environmental Science & Technology 2024, 58 (9) , 4346-4356. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c08575
    3. Sophia T. Merrifield, Sean Celona, Ryan A. McCarthy, Andrew Pietruszka, Heidi Batchelor, Robert Hess, Andrew Nager, Raymond Young, Kurt Sadorf, Lisa A. Levin, David L. Valentine, James E. Conrad, Eric J. Terrill. Wide-Area Debris Field and Seabed Characterization of a Deep Ocean Dump Site Surveyed by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. Environmental Science & Technology 2023, 57 (46) , 18162-18171. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c01256
    4. William H. Richardot, Lenard Yabes, Hung-Hsu Wei, Nathan G. Dodder, Kayo Watanabe, Adrienne Cibor, Suzaynn F. Schick, Thomas E. Novotny, Richard Gersberg, Eunha Hoh. Leached Compounds from Smoked Cigarettes and Their Potential for Bioaccumulation in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chemical Research in Toxicology 2023, 36 (11) , 1703-1710. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.3c00167

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