ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards

View Author Information
Texas Tech University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Lubbock, Texas 79409, United States
Texas Tech University, Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Lubbock, Texas 79409, United States
§ Oklahoma State University, Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-6016, United States
Baylor University, Department of Environmental Science, Waco, Texas 76706, United States
*Phone: 806.885.4567; fax: 806.885.4577; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 14, 8796–8803
Publication Date (Web):June 22, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»


    Abstract Image

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    On-filter steroid degradation methodology and results, steroid detection frequency (Table S1), steroid concentrations (Table S2), internal standard response quality control charts (Figure S1), Pearson’s correlation between PM concentration and meteorological conditions (Figure S2), Pearson’s correlation between specific steroids in PM (Figure S3), and Pearson’s correlation between steroid concentrations and meteorological conditions (Figure S4). The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01881.

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 26 publications.

    1. Frank B Green, Eric M Peterson, Amanda D Emert, Seenivasan Subbiah, Philip N Smith. Bee Pollinator Mortality Due to Pesticide-Laden Particulate Matter from Beef Cattle Feedyards. Environmental Science & Technology 2023, 57 (40) , 14839-14848.
    2. Eric M. Peterson, Frank B. Green, Philip N. Smith. Pesticides Used on Beef Cattle Feed Yards Are Aerially Transported into the Environment Via Particulate Matter. Environmental Science & Technology 2020, 54 (20) , 13008-13015.
    3. Eric M. Peterson, Kimberly J. Wooten, Seenivasan Subbiah, Todd A. Anderson, Scott Longing, and Philip N. Smith . Agrochemical Mixtures Detected on Wildflowers near Cattle Feed Yards. Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2017, 4 (6) , 216-220.
    4. A. H. Strickland, S. A. Murray, J. Vinasco, B. W. Auvermann, K. J. Bush, J. E. Sawyer, H. M. Scott, K. N. Norman. Comparative microbiome analysis of beef cattle, the feedyard environment, and airborne particulate matter as a function of probiotic and antibiotic use, and change in pen environment. Frontiers in Microbiology 2024, 15
    5. Amanda D. Emert, Kerry Griffis-Kyle, Carlos Portillo-Quintero, Philip N. Smith. USEPA CALPUFF validation and dispersion modeling of beef cattle feedlot PM10 and PM2.5 emissions factors. Atmospheric Environment 2024, 316 , 120189.
    6. Frank B. Green, Sonia R. Muñoz, Philip N. Smith. Laboratory Determination of Particulate‐Matter–Bound Agrochemical Toxicity among Honeybees, Mason Bees, and Painted Lady Butterflies. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2023, 42 (12) , 2642-2650.
    7. Amanda D. Emert, Kerry Griffis-Kyle, Frank B. Green, Philip N. Smith. Atmospheric transport of particulate matter and particulate-bound agrochemicals from beef cattle feedlots: Human health implications for downwind agricultural communities. Science of The Total Environment 2023, 894 , 164678.
    8. Frank B. Green, Eric M. Peterson, Philip N. Smith. A novel laboratory method for simulating pollinator exposure to agrochemical-laden particulate matter. Ecotoxicology 2023, 32 (4) , 544-551.
    9. Amanda D. Emert, Seenivasan Subbiah, Frank B. Green, Kerry Griffis-Kyle, Philip N. Smith. Atmospheric deposition of particulate matter from beef cattle feedlots is a likely contributor of pyrethroid occurrence in isolated wetland sediment: Source apportionment and ecological risk assessment. Environmental Pollution 2023, 316 , 120493.
    10. F. Pauelsen, G. Hamscher. Development of Targeted and non‐Targeted LC‐MS Approaches for Determining Hormones and their Transformation Products in Stable Dusts. Lebensmittelchemie 2022, 76 (S2)
    11. Eric M. Peterson, Frank B. Green, Seenivasan Subbiah, Amanda Emert, Philip N. Smith. Agrochemical occurrence on colocated wildflowers and wild bees collected near beef cattle feed yards and row crops. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 2022, 18 (1) , 163-173.
    12. Eric M. Peterson, Kelsey N. Thompson, Katherine R. Shaw, Caleb Tomlinson, Scott D. Longing, Philip N. Smith. Use of nest bundles to monitor agrochemical exposure and effects among cavity nesting pollinators. Environmental Pollution 2021, 286 , 117142.
    13. Olukayode J. Ayodeji, Olushola M. Awoyemi. Beef cattle feedlot surface water containing multi-class agrochemicals elicits physiological and behavioral responses among Daphnia pulex. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2021, 193 (7)
    14. K.L. Mahefarisoa, N. Simon Delso, V. Zaninotto, M.E. Colin, J.M. Bonmatin. The threat of veterinary medicinal products and biocides on pollinators: A One Health perspective. One Health 2021, 12 , 100237.
    15. Isaac A. Aboagye, Marcos R. C. Cordeiro, Tim A. McAllister, Kim H. Ominski. Productivity-Enhancing Technologies. Can Consumer Choices Affect the Environmental Footprint of Beef?. Sustainability 2021, 13 (8) , 4283.
    16. Philip N. Smith. The Meat of the Matter: Environmental Dissemination of Beef Cattle Agrochemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2021, 40 (4) , 965-966.
    17. Xingjian Yang, Haoqi Zhao, David M. Cwiertny, Edward P. Kolodziej. Sorption and transport of trenbolone and altrenogest photoproducts in soil–water systems. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 2019, 21 (10) , 1650-1663.
    18. Philip T. Kenyon, Haoqi Zhao, Xingjian Yang, Christopher Wu, David M. Cwiertny, Edward P. Kolodziej. Detection and quantification of metastable photoproducts of trenbolone and altrenogest using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2019, 1603 , 150-159.
    19. Kimberly J. Wooten, Gregory D. Mayer, Philip N. Smith. Persistence of elevated concentrations of PM, affiliated pharmaceuticals, and tetracycline resistance genes downwind of feedyards. Environmental Pollution 2019, 247 , 467-473.
    20. Scott L. Kronberg, Julie Ryschawy. Negative Impacts on the Environment and People From Simplification of Crop and Livestock Production. 2019, 75-90.
    21. Gerald T. Ankley, Katherine K. Coady, Melanie Gross, Henrik Holbech, Steven L. Levine, Gerd Maack, Mike Williams. A critical review of the environmental occurrence and potential effects in aquatic vertebrates of the potent androgen receptor agonist 17β‐trenbolone. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2018, 37 (8) , 2064-2078.
    22. Kimberly J. Wooten, Melissa A. Sandoz, Philip N. Smith. Ractopamine in particulate matter emitted from beef cattle feedyards and playa wetlands in the Central Plains. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2018, 37 (4) , 970-974.
    23. Sara E. Place. Animal welfare and environmental issues. 2018, 69-89.
    24. Melissa A. Sandoz, Kimberly J. Wooten, Sheree L. Clendening, Loren L. Hensley, Lucas R. Smith, Philip N. Smith. Transport mechanisms for veterinary pharmaceuticals from beef cattle feedyards to wetlands: Is aerial deposition a contributing source?. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2018, 252 , 14-21.
    25. Albie Miles, Marcia S. DeLonge, Liz Carlisle. Triggering a positive research and policy feedback cycle to support a transition to agroecology and sustainable food systems. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 2017, 41 (7) , 855-879.
    26. Alan S. Kolok. Traveling Particles. 2016, 50-57.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect