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Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards

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Texas Tech University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Lubbock, Texas 79409, United States
Texas Tech University, Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Lubbock, Texas 79409, United States
§ Oklahoma State University, Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-6016, United States
Baylor University, Department of Environmental Science, Waco, Texas 76706, United States
*Phone: 806.885.4567; fax: 806.885.4577; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 14, 8796–8803
Publication Date (Web):June 22, 2015
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01881
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

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    On-filter steroid degradation methodology and results, steroid detection frequency (Table S1), steroid concentrations (Table S2), internal standard response quality control charts (Figure S1), Pearson’s correlation between PM concentration and meteorological conditions (Figure S2), Pearson’s correlation between specific steroids in PM (Figure S3), and Pearson’s correlation between steroid concentrations and meteorological conditions (Figure S4). The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01881.

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