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Specific Effects of Dietary Methylmercury and Inorganic Mercury in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Determined by Genetic, Histological, and Metallothionein Responses

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Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR CNRS 5805, Place du Dr B. Peyneau, F-33120 Arcachon, France
CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33120 Arcachon, France
Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM), CNRS-UPPA-UMR-5254, Hélioparc, 2 Avenue du Président Pierre Angot, F-64053 Pau, France
§ Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Laboratoire de Geosciences Environnement Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
GET, IRD, F-31400 Toulouse, France
*Phone: + (33) 05 56 22 39 21. Fax: +(33) 05 56 54 93 83. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 24, 14560–14569
Publication Date (Web):October 28, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    A multidisciplinary approach is proposed here to compare toxicity mechanisms of methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (iHg) in muscle, liver, and brain from zebrafish (Danio rerio). Animals were dietary exposed to (1) 50 ng Hg g–1, 80% as MeHg; (2) diet enriched in MeHg 10000 ng Hg g–1, 95% as MeHg; (3) diet enriched in iHg 10000 ng Hg g–1, 99% as iHg, for two months. Hg species specific bioaccumulation pathways were highlighted, with a preferential bioaccumulation of MeHg in brain and iHg in liver. In the same way, differences in genetic pattern were observed for both Hg species, (an early genetic response (7 days) for both species in the three organs and a late genetic response (62 days) for iHg) and revealed a dissimilar metabolization of both Hg species. Among the 18 studied genes involved in key metabolic pathways of the cell, major genetic responses were observed in muscle. Electron microscopy revealed damage mainly because of MeHg in muscle and also in liver tissue. In brain, high MeHg and iHg concentrations induced metallothionein production. Finally, the importance of the fish origin in ecotoxicological studies, here the seventh descent of a zebrafish line, is discussed.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03586.

    • Details on experimental design, theoretical quantity of mercury absorbed per fish during the experiment, average total mercury (THg) concentrations in the skeletal muscle, liver, and brain of Danio rerio, function, accession numbers, and specific primer matching with Danio rerio genes used for quantitative RT-PCR, differential gene expressions, observation by electron microscopy of zebrafish skeletal muscle and liver (PDF)

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