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Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Key Parameters Affecting the Release of Harmful Chemicals

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Indoor Environment Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS70-108B, Berkeley, California 94720, United States
Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand (ICCF), Université Clermont Auvergne, Sigma-Clermont, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
§ ICCF, UMR 6296, CNRS, F-63178 Aubière, France
División Química de la Remediación Ambiental, CNEA-CONICET, Avenida Gral. Paz, (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad de General San Martín, Campus Miguelete, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina
*E-mail: [email protected]; phone: (510) 486-5897.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 50, 17, 9644–9651
Publication Date (Web):July 27, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01741
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Use of electronic cigarettes has grown exponentially over the past few years, raising concerns about harmful emissions. This study quantified potentially toxic compounds in the vapor and identified key parameters affecting emissions. Six principal constituents in three different refill “e-liquids” were propylene glycol (PG), glycerin, nicotine, ethanol, acetol, and propylene oxide. The latter, with mass concentrations of 0.4–0.6%, is a possible carcinogen and respiratory irritant. Aerosols generated with vaporizers contained up to 31 compounds, including nicotine, nicotyrine, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glycidol, acrolein, acetol, and diacetyl. Glycidol is a probable carcinogen not previously identified in the vapor, and acrolein is a powerful irritant. Emission rates ranged from tens to thousands of nanograms of toxicants per milligram of e-liquid vaporized, and they were significantly higher for a single-coil vs a double-coil vaporizer (by up to an order of magnitude for aldehydes). By increasing the voltage applied to a single-coil device from 3.3 to 4.8 V, the mass of e-liquid consumed doubled from 3.7 to 7.5 mg puff–1 and the total aldehyde emission rates tripled from 53 to 165 μg puff–1, with acrolein rates growing by a factor of 10. Aldehyde emissions increased by more than 60% after the device was reused several times, likely due to the buildup of polymerization byproducts that degraded upon heating. These findings suggest that thermal degradation byproducts are formed during vapor generation. Glycidol and acrolein were primarily produced by glycerin degradation. Acetol and 2-propen-1-ol were produced mostly from PG, while other compounds (e.g., formaldehyde) originated from both. Because emissions originate from reaction of the most common e-liquid constituents (solvents), harmful emissions are expected to be ubiquitous when e-cigarette vapor is present.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01741.

    • Schematic descriptions of the vaporizers used in this study and the vaping machine, trace constituents in e-liquids, emission factors of analytes found in mainstream vapor, mass of e-liquid consumed per puff, analyte concentrations in vapor, and emission factors for experiments using both devices and the CT e-liquid, for the three e-liquids consumed in the EGO clearomizer, and for analytes found in mainstream vapor (PDF)

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