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A Modified Approach for in Situ Chemical Oxidation Coupled to Biodegradation Enhances Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Source-Zone Remediation

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Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Environmental Microbial Genomics, Laboratoire Ampere, CNRS, École Centrale de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Ecully, France
*E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: +55 48 37212130. Fax: +55 48 32346459.
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, 51, 1, 463–472
Publication Date (Web):November 22, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03604
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

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Field and batch experiments were conducted to assess whether a modified approach for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) (with MgO2 and Fe2O3 particles recovered from acid mine drainage treatment) can enhance LNAPL (light nonaqueous phase liquid) dissolution and produce bioavailable soluble compounds. This modified ISCO approach was coupled to biodegradation to further remove residual compounds by microbially mediated processes. Pure palm biodiesel (B100) was chosen to represent a poorly water-soluble compound that behaves like LNAPLs, and 100 L was released to a 2 m2 area excavated down to the water table. A past adjacent B100-field experiment under natural attenuation was conducted as a baseline control. Results demonstrated the enhancement of organic compound dissolution and production of soluble compounds due to the modified in situ chemical oxidation. The slow release of H2O2 by MgO2 decomposition (termed partial chemical oxidation) and production of soluble compounds allowed the stimulation of microbial growth and promoted a beneficial response in microbial communities involved in oxidized biodiesel compound biodegradation. This is the first field experiment to demonstrate that this modified ISCO approach coupled to biodegradation could be a feasible strategy for the removal of poorly water-soluble compounds (e.g., biodiesel) and prevent the long-term effects generally posed in source zones.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b03604.

  • Schematic view of the experimental area configuration (PCO-B and MNA control experiments), 16S rRNA relative abundance (percent) of microbial communities in groundwater samples from SWS and SW31 from the MNA experiment 20 months following the release, GC chromatograms of soybean oil batch experiments after incubation for 11 and 17 days, theoretical modified Fenton reactions with MgO2 and Fe2O3 and organic compound termination reactions, concentration of total bacteria (qPCR of 16S rRNA gene) at the source zone of the PCO-B experiment, groundwater concentrations (milligrams per liter) of total organic carbon (TOC), acetate, and methane at the source zone of MNA and PCO-B experiments 99.2 and 30.6 months following the release, respectively, primer sequences used for qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metabolic characteristics of the archaeal and bacterial communities in groundwater samples from B100 releases of PCO-B and MNA experiments (PDF)

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