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Flavoring Chemicals and Aldehydes in E-Cigarette Emissions

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Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 401 Park Drive Boston, Massachusetts 02215, United States
*Phone: 617-384-8475; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2017, 51, 18, 10806–10813
Publication Date (Web):August 17, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

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    Regulations on e-cigarettes in the U.S. do not provide guidelines on the chemical content of e-cigarette liquids. We evaluated emissions of aldehydes and flavoring chemicals in e-cigarette vapor under typical usage conditions. We selected 24 e-cigarette flavors from the top selling disposable e-cigarette brands. E-cigarettes were connected to a pump drawing air for two second puffs with sixty-second intervals between puffs. The vapor was analyzed for the presence of aldehydes using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector and for the presence of flavoring chemicals with gas chromatography and an electron capture detector. All e-cigarette emissions tested contained at least one aldehyde and/or flavoring chemical on either the FEMA “High Priority Chemicals” or FDA Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents lists when sampled at typical usage conditions. Diacetyl, a known respiratory hazard, along with acetoin, were the most prevalent of the flavoring chemicals in e-cigarette vapor, being found in more than 60% of samples. The presence of propionaldehyde, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were correlated, corroborating previous work suggesting thermal degradation as a pathway for aldehyde generation in e-cigarette vapors. Median formaldehyde concentrations of 626 μg/m3 in e-cigarette vapor exceed the ACGIH maximum concentrations allowable for workers of 370 μg/m3.

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