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Effects of HCO3 on Degradation of Toxic Contaminants of Emerging Concern by UV/NO3

  • Ying Huang
    Ying Huang
    Environmental Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, United States
    More by Ying Huang
  • Minghao Kong
    Minghao Kong
    Environmental Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, United States
    More by Minghao Kong
  • Danielle Westerman
    Danielle Westerman
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, United States
  • Elvis Genbo Xu
    Elvis Genbo Xu
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States
  • Scott Coffin
    Scott Coffin
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States
    More by Scott Coffin
  • Kristin H. Cochran
    Kristin H. Cochran
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, United States
  • Yiqing Liu
    Yiqing Liu
    Environmental Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, United States
    Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
    More by Yiqing Liu
  • Susan D. Richardson
    Susan D. Richardson
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, United States
  • Daniel Schlenk
    Daniel Schlenk
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States
  • , and 
  • Dionysios D. Dionysiou*
    Dionysios D. Dionysiou
    Environmental Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, United States
    *Phone: +001- (513) 556-0724; e-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2018, 52, 21, 12697–12707
Publication Date (Web):October 4, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    This study investigated the significant influence of HCO3 on the degradation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) during nitrate photolysis at 254 nm for water reuse applications. The second-order rate constants for the reactions between selected contaminants with carbonate radical (CO3•–) were determined at pH 8.8 and T = 20 °C: estrone ((5.3 ± 1.1) × 108 M–1 s–1), bisphenol A ((2.8 ± 0.2) × 108 M–1 s–1), 17α-ethynylestradiol ((1.6 ± 0.3) × 108 M–1 s–1), triclosan ((4.2 ± 1.4) × 107 M–1 s–1), diclofenac ((2.7 ± 0.7) × 107 M–1 s–1), atrazine ((5.7 ± 0.1) × 106 M–1 s–1), carbamazepine ((4.2 ± 0.01) × 106 M–1 s–1), and ibuprofen ((1.2 ± 1.1) × 106 M–1 s–1). Contributions from UV, reactive nitrogen species (RNS), hydroxyl radical (OH), and CO3•– to the CEC decomposition in UV/NO3 in the presence and absence of HCO3 were investigated. In addition, possible transformation products and degradation pathways of triclosan, diclofenac, bisphenol A, and estrone in UV/NO3/HCO3 were proposed based on the mass (MS) and MS2 spectra. Significant reduction in the cytotoxicity of bisphenol A was observed after the treatment with UV/NO3/HCO3.

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    Supporting Information

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b04383.

    • Information on chemical used; CECs and transformation products analysis; methodology to determine steady-state concentration of OH and CO3•–; methodology to calculation contributions on CEC degradation; cytotoxicity analysis methods; water parameters of RO permeate; CO3•– reactions rate constants; LC/MS conditions for transformation products analysis; MS and MS2 spectra for transformation products; UV fluence-based evolution for transformation products during CEC degradation; degradation of NB, 4-CP, and selected CECs (BPA, E1, EE2, TCS, DCF, ATZ, CBZ, and IBP); and additional references. (Text S1–S6, Table S1–S11, and Figure S1–S18) (PDF)

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