ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
Recently Viewed
You have not visited any articles yet, Please visit some articles to see contents here.
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img
RETURN TO ISSUECritical ReviewNEXT

Global Ocean Spectrophotometric pH Assessment: Consistent Inconsistencies

  • Marta Álvarez*
    Marta Álvarez
    Instituto Español de Oceanografı́a, A Coruña, 15001, Spain
    *Phone: +34-986-213-116; fax: +34-986-498-626; e-mail: [email protected]
  • Noelia M. Fajar
    Noelia M. Fajar
    Instituto Español de Oceanografı́a, A Coruña, 15001, Spain
  • Brendan R. Carter
    Brendan R. Carter
    Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Seattle, Washington 98105, United States
    Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington 98115, United States
  • Elisa F. Guallart
    Elisa F. Guallart
    Instituto Español de Oceanografı́a, A Coruña, 15001, Spain
  • Fiz F. Pérez
    Fiz F. Pérez
    Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas - CSIC, Vigo, 36208, Spain
  • Ryan J. Woosley
    Ryan J. Woosley
    Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States
  • , and 
  • Akihiko Murata
    Akihiko Murata
    Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Kanagawa, Japan
Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 18, 10977–10988
Publication Date (Web):June 9, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06932
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society
Article Views
1251
Altmetric
-
Citations
LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
Read OnlinePDF (3 MB)
Supporting Info (1)»

Abstract

Abstract Image

Ocean acidification (OA)—or the decrease in seawater pH resulting from ocean uptake of CO2 released by human activities—stresses ocean ecosystems and is recognized as a Climate and Sustainable Development Goal Indicator that needs to be evaluated and monitored. Monitoring OA-related pH changes requires a high level of precision and accuracy. The two most common ways to quantify seawater pH are to measure it spectrophotometrically or to calculate it from total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). However, despite decades of research, small but important inconsistencies remain between measured and calculated pH. To date, this issue has been circumvented by examining changes only in consistently measured properties. Currently, the oceanographic community is defining new observational strategies for OA and other key aspects of the ocean carbon cycle based on novel sensors and technologies that rely on validation against data records and/or synthesis products. Comparison of measured spectrophotometric pH to calculated pH from TA and DIC measured during the 2000s and 2010s eras reveals that (1) there is an evolution toward a better agreement between measured and calculated pH over time from 0.02 pH units in the 2000s to 0.01 pH units in the 2010s at pH > 7.6; (2) a disagreement greater than 0.01 pH units persists in waters with pH < 7.6, and (3) inconsistencies likely stem from variations in the spectrophotometric pH standard operating procedure (SOP). A reassessment of pH measurement and calculation SOPs and metrology is urgently needed.

Supporting Information

ARTICLE SECTIONS
Jump To

The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.9b06932.

  • Tables with metadata information about the cruises in Group 1 (Table S1), Group 2 (Table S2), CO2 thermodynamic constants used (Table S3), and crossover analysis (Table S4). Figures with more information about Group 1 and 2 measured minus calculated DIC (Figure S1) and pH (Figures S2, S3, and S4). Figures showing the results for crossovers in the South Pacific (Figure S5), South Atlantic (Figure S6), and North Indian (Figure S7) oceans. Figure with more information about Group 2 measured minus calculated TA with different constants (Figure S8) (PDF)

Terms & Conditions

Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Cited By

This article is cited by 18 publications.

  1. Elisa F. Guallart, Noelia M. Fajar, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, Mónica Castaño-Carrera, Rocío Santiago-Doménech, Abed El Rahman Hassoun, Fiz F. Pérez, Regina A. Easley, Marta Álvarez. Spectrophotometric Measurement of Carbonate Ion in Seawater over a Decade: Dealing with Inconsistencies. Environmental Science & Technology 2022, 56 (12) , 7381-7395. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c06083
  2. Marta Álvarez, Teresa S. Catalá, Giuseppe Civitarese, Laurent Coppola, Abed E.R. Hassoun, Valeria Ibello, Paolo Lazzari, Dominique Lefevre, Diego Macías, Chiara Santinelli, Caroline Ulses. Mediterranean Sea general biogeochemistry. 2023,,, 387-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-823692-5.00004-2
  3. M. Fontela, A. Velo, P. J. Brown, F. F. Pérez. Carbonate System Species and pH. 2023,,, 1-37. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14486-8_1
  4. Yingxu Wu, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Eric P. Achterberg, Amavi N. Silva, Daisy D. Pickup, Xiang Li, Sue Hartman, David Stappard, Di Qi, Toby Tyrrell. Integrated analysis of carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations as a quality control of ocean float data. Communications Earth & Environment 2022, 3 (1) https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00421-w
  5. Yingxu Wu, Di Qi. Inconsistency between ship- and Argo float-based pCO2 at the intense upwelling region of the Drake Passage, Southern Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science 2022, 9 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.1002398
  6. Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, Yui Takeshita, Elisa F. Guallart, Noelia M. Fajar, Denis Pierrot, Fiz F. Pérez, Wei-Jun Cai, Marta Álvarez. Gaining insights into the seawater carbonate system using discrete fCO2 measurements. Marine Chemistry 2022, 245 , 104150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2022.104150
  7. Xinyu Li, Yuan‐Yuan Xu, David L. Kirchman, Wei‐Jun Cai. Carbonate Parameter Estimation and Its Application in Revealing Temporal and Spatial Variation in the South and Mid‐Atlantic Bight, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 2022, 127 (7) https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JC018811
  8. David Crisp, Han Dolman, Toste Tanhua, Galen A. McKinley, Judith Hauck, Ana Bastos, Stephen Sitch, Simon Eggleston, Valentin Aich. How Well Do We Understand the Land‐Ocean‐Atmosphere Carbon Cycle?. Reviews of Geophysics 2022, 60 (2) https://doi.org/10.1029/2021RG000736
  9. Yuichiro Takeshita, Keaton L. Mertz, Addie Norgaard, Sara Gray, Maddie H. Verburg, Emily E. Bockmon. Accurate spectrophotometric pH measurements made directly in the sample bottle using an aggregated dye perturbation approach. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 2022, 20 (5) , 281-287. https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10486
  10. Brendan R. Carter, Henry C. Bittig, Andrea J. Fassbender, Jonathan D. Sharp, Yuichiro Takeshita, Yuan‐Yuan Xu, Marta Álvarez, Rik Wanninkhof, Richard A. Feely, Leticia Barbero. New and updated global empirical seawater property estimation routines. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 2021, 19 (12) , 785-809. https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10461
  11. Yuichiro Takeshita, Joseph K. Warren, Xuewu Liu, Reggie S. Spaulding, Robert H. Byrne, Brendan R. Carter, Michael D. DeGrandpre, Akihiko Murata, Shu-ichi Watanabe. Consistency and stability of purified meta-cresol purple for spectrophotometric pH measurements in seawater. Marine Chemistry 2021, 236 , 104018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2021.104018
  12. Ting Wang, Ling-li Jiang, Yan-ling Zhang, Li-guang Wu, Hua-li Chen, Chun-juan Li. Fabrication of polyimide mixed matrix membranes with asymmetric confined mass transfer channels for improved CO2 separation. Journal of Membrane Science 2021, 637 , 119653. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2021.119653
  13. Yingxu Wu, Di Qi, Zhangxian Ouyang, Lu Cao, Richard A. Feely, Hongmei Lin, Wei‐Jun Cai, Liqi Chen. Contrasting Controls of Acidification Metrics Across Environmental Gradients in the North Pacific and the Adjunct Arctic Ocean: Insight From a Transregional Study. Geophysical Research Letters 2021, 48 (19) https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL094473
  14. Jonathan D. Sharp, Robert H. Byrne. Technical note: Excess alkalinity in carbonate system reference materials. Marine Chemistry 2021, 233 , 103965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2021.103965
  15. Philip J. Bresnahan, Yuichiro Takeshita, Taylor Wirth, Todd R. Martz, Tyler Cyronak, Rebecca Albright, Kennedy Wolfe, Joseph K. Warren, Keaton Mertz. Autonomous in situ calibration of ion‐sensitive field effect transistor pH sensors. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 2021, 19 (2) , 132-144. https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10410
  16. Ryan J. Woosley. Evaluation of the temperature dependence of dissociation constants for the marine carbon system using pH and certified reference materials. Marine Chemistry 2021, 229 , 103914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103914
  17. Siv K. Lauvset, Nico Lange, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Are Olsen, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Steve D. Jones, Maren K. Karlsen, Claire Lo Monaco, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, Ryan J. Woosley, Robert M. Key. An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2021. Earth System Science Data 2021, 13 (12) , 5565-5589. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-13-5565-2021
  18. Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Camilla S. Landa, Siv K. Lauvset, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, Ryan J. Woosley. An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2020. Earth System Science Data 2020, 12 (4) , 3653-3678. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-3653-2020

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

STEP 1:
Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect

This website uses cookies to improve your user experience. By continuing to use the site, you are accepting our use of cookies. Read the ACS privacy policy.

CONTINUE