ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img
RETURN TO ISSUEPREVEcotoxicology and Pu...Ecotoxicology and Public HealthNEXT

Directly Fluorinated Containers as a Source of Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylic Acids

Cite this: Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2023, 10, 4, 350–355
Publication Date (Web):March 6, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.3c00083
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    1960

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»

    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    Direct fluorination of plastics is performed to impart chemical resistance via exposure of polyethylene to fluorine gas to produce a fluorine-modified surface layer. Leaching experiments were performed on a directly fluorinated container under various conditions and with different matrices, including foodstuffs. The average sum of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations measured from extraction of a fluorinated container was 63.75 ± 13.2 ng/g plastic. Seven-day leaching experiments of fluorinated containers with water, methanol, and acetone produced sums of PFAS concentrations that ranged from 0.99 to 66.92 ng/g plastic. Leaching experiments with food matrices produced sums of PFAS concentrations ranging from 2.66 to 7.19 ng/g plastic. A subset of samples subjected to leaching at elevated temperatures generated sums of PFAS concentrations up to 830% higher. In all experiments, short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in the highest frequencies and concentrations with analyte concentration decreasing as chain length increased. An estimate for PFAS released into food ranged from 0.77 to 2.68 ng/kg body weight per week, showing ingestion of food stored in these containers could be a significant source of exposure. Based on the large number of applications where directly fluorinated containers find use, the observation of PFAS migration suggests use regulations are warranted, and future studies should explore their fate when disposed or recycled.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.estlett.3c00083.

    • Additional details on sample collection and preparation, as well as parameters used for the instrumental analysis. Full results of LC-MS/MS analysis, as well tables and figures examining trends and relationships observed in samples. (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 4 publications.

    1. Fuqiang Liu, Joseph J. Pignatello, Runze Sun, Xiaohong Guan, Feng Xiao. A Comprehensive Review of Novel Adsorbents for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Water. ACS ES&T Water 2024, 4 (4) , 1191-1205. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.3c00569
    2. Drake W. Phelps, Lindsey V. Parkinson, Justin M. Boucher, Jane Muncke, Birgit Geueke. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Food Packaging: Migration, Toxicity, and Management Strategies. Environmental Science & Technology 2024, 58 (13) , 5670-5684. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.3c03702
    3. Shira Joudan, Jeremy Gauthier, Scott A. Mabury, Cora J. Young. Aqueous Leaching of Ultrashort-Chain PFAS from (Fluoro)polymers: Targeted and Nontargeted Analysis. Environmental Science & Technology Letters 2024, 11 (3) , 237-242. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.3c00797
    4. Michael A. Holly, Kpoti M. Gunn, Daniel Keymer, Joseph R. Sanford. Evaluation of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Leaching from Biosolids and Mitigation Potential of Biochar through Undisturbed Soil Columns. ACS ES&T Water 2024, 4 (2) , 413-426. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsestwater.3c00414

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect