ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity
CONTENT TYPES

Figure 1Loading Img

A Decade of Germananes: Four Approaches to Their Functionalization

  • Tomáš Hartman*
    Tomáš Hartman
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    *Email: [email protected]
  • Jan Konečný
    Jan Konečný
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech Republic
  • Vlastimil Mazánek
    Vlastimil Mazánek
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech Republic
  • Jiří Šturala*
    Jiří Šturala
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    *Email: [email protected]
  • , and 
  • Zdenek Sofer*
    Zdenek Sofer
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Zdenek Sofer
Cite this: Inorg. Chem. 2022, 61, 31, 12425–12432
Publication Date (Web):July 25, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01873
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

    Article Views

    313

    Altmetric

    -

    Citations

    -
    LEARN ABOUT THESE METRICS
    Other access options
    Supporting Info (1)»

    Abstract

    Abstract Image

    Since the first synthesis of germanane (GeH) reported in 2013, two-dimensional germanium-based materials have been intensively studied. Over the past decade, several methodologies for the functionalization of germanane have been introduced. The first approach utilized exfoliation of Zintl phase CaGe2 with alkyl halides. Liu’s solvothermal method was used for the synthesis of methyl germanane. Another methodology utilized Ge–H activation with sodium naphthalenide and its subsequent alkylation. All of these methods provide functionalized germananes; thus, a comparison of these methods is needed. In this paper, such a comparison of current synthetic approaches towards alkyl germananes is reported, and additionally, a new method for Ge–H activation utilizing a NaK equimolar alloy is presented as a fourth approach. For this purpose, eight alkyl reagents were chosen representing reactive benzyl bromides as well as linear esters and nitriles because they contain easily trackable functional groups. The materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the data were compared. The comparison of all methods revealed not only some drawbacks for each method but also their advantages. The method utilizing sodium naphthalenide provided the lowest degree of surface coverage, whereas the solvothermal method seemed to provide materials with the highest degree of functionalization; unfortunately, the functionalization was also accompanied by a high degree of surface oxidation, i.e., (Ge–OH/Ge═O) formation. The highest degree of surface coverage accompanied by the lowest degree of surface oxidation was achieved employing Goldberger’s phase transfer direct exfoliation of CaGe2 as well as Ge–H activation using the NaK alloy with subsequent alkylation.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.

    Recommended

    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    ARTICLE SECTIONS
    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01873.

    • Detailed descriptions of the characterization methods, table summarizing the results of Raman spectroscopy and TG measurements, Raman spectra of germanene derivatives, TG curves of germanene derivatives, survey and detailed (Ge 2p, C 1s, and O 1s) XPS spectra of germanene derivatives, and SEM images and corresponding EDS maps of germanene derivatives (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

    Cited By

    This article has not yet been cited by other publications.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    MENDELEY PAIRING EXPIRED
    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect