A Decade of Germananes: Four Approaches to Their Functionalization
- Tomáš Hartman*
- Jan KonečnýJan KonečnýDepartment of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech RepublicMore by Jan Konečný
- Vlastimil MazánekVlastimil MazánekDepartment of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 26 Prague 6, Czech RepublicMore by Vlastimil Mazánek
- Jiří Šturala*
- , and
- Zdenek Sofer*
Since the first synthesis of germanane (GeH) reported in 2013, two-dimensional germanium-based materials have been intensively studied. Over the past decade, several methodologies for the functionalization of germanane have been introduced. The first approach utilized exfoliation of Zintl phase CaGe2 with alkyl halides. Liu’s solvothermal method was used for the synthesis of methyl germanane. Another methodology utilized Ge–H activation with sodium naphthalenide and its subsequent alkylation. All of these methods provide functionalized germananes; thus, a comparison of these methods is needed. In this paper, such a comparison of current synthetic approaches towards alkyl germananes is reported, and additionally, a new method for Ge–H activation utilizing a NaK equimolar alloy is presented as a fourth approach. For this purpose, eight alkyl reagents were chosen representing reactive benzyl bromides as well as linear esters and nitriles because they contain easily trackable functional groups. The materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the data were compared. The comparison of all methods revealed not only some drawbacks for each method but also their advantages. The method utilizing sodium naphthalenide provided the lowest degree of surface coverage, whereas the solvothermal method seemed to provide materials with the highest degree of functionalization; unfortunately, the functionalization was also accompanied by a high degree of surface oxidation, i.e., (Ge–OH/Ge═O) formation. The highest degree of surface coverage accompanied by the lowest degree of surface oxidation was achieved employing Goldberger’s phase transfer direct exfoliation of CaGe2 as well as Ge–H activation using the NaK alloy with subsequent alkylation.
Read this article
To access this article, please review the available access options below.
This article has not yet been cited by other publications.