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A Comparative Metabolomics Study of Flavonoids in Radish with Different Skin and Flesh Colors (Raphanus sativus L.)

  • Jifang Zhang
    Jifang Zhang
    Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    Center for Southern Economic Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    More by Jifang Zhang
  • Xiaojun Qiu
    Xiaojun Qiu
    Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    Center for Southern Economic Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    More by Xiaojun Qiu
  • Qunyun Tan
    Qunyun Tan
    Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    Center for Southern Economic Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    More by Qunyun Tan
  • Qingming Xiao
    Qingming Xiao
    Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    Center for Southern Economic Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
  • , and 
  • Shiyong Mei*
    Shiyong Mei
    Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    Center for Southern Economic Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410205, Hunan, China
    *Email: [email protected]
    More by Shiyong Mei
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2020, 68, 49, 14463–14470
Publication Date (Web):November 20, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05031
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Radish (Raphanus sativus) is an important worldwide vegetable with a wide variety of colors that affect its appearance and nutritional quality. However, the large-scale detection, identification, and quantification of flavonoids in multicolor radish have rarely been studied. To uncover the diversity and accession-specific flavonoids in radish, liquid chromatography electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles in the skin and flesh of six colored radish accessions: light-red Manshenhong, dark-red Touxinhong (TXH), purple Zijinling (ZJL), Xinlimei with red flesh (XLMF) and green skin, white Shizhuangbai (SZB), and black radish. In total, 133 flavonoids, including 16 dihydroflavones, 44 flavones, 14 flavonoids, 9 anthocyanins, and 28 flavonols, were characterized. The flavonoid metabolic profiles differed among the different colored radishes. Red and purple radishes contained similar anthocyanin compounds responsible for color pigmentation, including red cyanidin, callistephin, and pelargonin. Purple ZJL was most enriched with cyanidin o-syringic acid and cyanin, whereas callistephin and pelargonin were more abundant in dark-red TXH. Additionally, the black and white radishes shared similar anthocyanin and flavonoid profiles, suggesting that the color of black radishes was not caused by anthocyanin but by other metabolites. The metabolites in colored radishes that differed from SZB were mainly involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, such as flavonoid, flavone, flavonol, isoflavonoid, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. This study provides new insights into the differences in metabolite profiles among radishes with different skin and flesh colors. The results will be useful for aiding the cultivation of valuable new radish varieties.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05031.

    • Taproot colors of the six radish accessions; differences in the relative contents of 26 flavonoids in the skin and flesh of the six radish accessions; differential flavonoid analysis of the skin in colored radish compared to SZB; enrichment of the differential metabolites in distinct KEGG pathways; total ion chromatography (TIC) of various radish accessions; list of 133 flavonoid metabolites identified in radish taproots; a total of 37 differential metabolites were identified between colored and WF radishes; KEGG pathways identified in the colored skin and flesh of radishes; and identification level of metabolites (PDF)

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