Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

Pair your accounts.

Export articles to Mendeley

Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

Click to create an ACS ID

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect
ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Figure 1Loading Img

Recombinant FIP-gat, a Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein from Ganoderma atrum, Induces Growth Inhibition and Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells

View Author Information
Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture, and Engineering Research Center of Cell & Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China
Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China
§ Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06032, United States
# State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China
*(X.-W.Z.) E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: +86-21-34205778. Fax: +86-21-34205778.
*(W.L.) E-mail: [email protected]. Phone: +86-21-34205885. Fax: +86-21-34206059.
Cite this: J. Agric. Food Chem. 2016, 64, 13, 2690–2698
Publication Date (Web):March 20, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Other access options
    Supporting Info (2)»


    Abstract Image

    FIP-gat, an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Ganoderma atrum, is a new member of the FIP family. Little is known, however, about its expressional properties and antitumor activities. It was availably expressed in Escherichia coli with a total yield of 29.75 mg/L. The migration of recombinant FIP-gat (rFIP-gat) on SDS-PAGE corresponded to the predicted molecular mass, and the band was correctly detected by a specific antibody. To characterize the direct effects of rFIP-gat on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with different concentrations of rFIP-gat in vitro; the results showed that this protein could reduce cell viability dose-dependently with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 9.96 μg/mL and agglutinate the MDA-MB-231 cells at a concentration as low as 5 μg/mL. Furthermore, FIP-gat at a concentration of 10 μg/mL can induce significant growth inhibition and cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, FIP-gat treatment triggers significant cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition and pronounced increase in apoptotic cell population. Molecular assays based on microarray and real-time PCR further revealed the potential mechanisms encompassing growth arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy underlying the phenotypic effects.

    Read this article

    To access this article, please review the available access options below.

    Get instant access

    Purchase Access

    Read this article for 48 hours. Check out below using your ACS ID or as a guest.


    Access through Your Institution

    You may have access to this article through your institution.

    Your institution does not have access to this content. You can change your affiliated institution below.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00539.

    • Primers and amplicons for Cyber Green-based real-time PCR (Table S1) (PDF)

    • Characterization of pET30a::FIP-gat plasmid by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion (Figure S1) (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 41 publications.

    1. Jingwei Lin, Yating Liao, Sijia Yang, Taicheng Jin, Boning Yu, Kai Zhao, Yixiao Sai, Cheng Lin, Yanhua Song, Hui Ma, Zhanyong Wang. Identification a novel Ganoderma FIP gene from Ganoderma capense and its functional expression in Pichia pastoris. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2024, 40 (2)
    2. Mohammed Sharif Swallah, Precious Bondzie-Quaye, Han Wang, Chang-Sheng Shao, Pei Hua, Mona Alrasheed Bashir, Joseph Benjamin Holman, Frederick Leo Sossah, Qing Huang. Potentialities of Ganoderma lucidum extracts as functional ingredients in food formulation. Food Research International 2023, 172 , 113161.
    3. Shuhui Yu, Ying Wang, Yingying Wu, Dapeng Bao, Wei Bing, Yan Li, Hongyu Chen. Characterization, Recombinant Production, and Bioactivity of a Novel Immunomodulatory Protein from Hypsizygus marmoreus. Molecules 2023, 28 (12) , 4796.
    4. Qi-Zhang Li, Ze-Rong Zhou, Cui-Yu Hu, Xian-Bin Li, Yu-Zhou Chang, Yan Liu, Yu-Liang Wang, Xuan-Wei Zhou. Recent advances of bioactive proteins/polypeptides in the treatment of breast cancer. Food Science and Biotechnology 2023, 32 (3) , 265-282.
    5. Juan Xu, Dazhong Xu, Qiuhui Hu, Ning Ma, Fei Pei, Anxiang Su, Gaoxing Ma. Immune regulatory functions of biologically active proteins from edible fungi. Frontiers in Immunology 2023, 13
    6. S. M. Badalyan, A. Zambonelli. The Potential of Mushrooms in Developing Healthy Food and Biotech Products. 2023, 307-344.
    7. Susanna M. Badalyan, Sergey S. Hayrapetyan. Sterols Content of Fruiting Bodies of Medicinal Artist's Bracket Mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Agaricomycetes) Collected in Armenia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2023, 25 (7) , 65-74.
    8. Ayyagari Ramlal, Aveek Samanta. In Silico functional and phylogenetic analyses of fungal immunomodulatory proteins of some edible mushrooms. AMB Express 2022, 12 (1)
    9. M. A. Oke, F. J. Afolabi, O. O. Oyeleke, T. A. Kilani, A. R. Adeosun, A. A. Olanbiwoninu, E. A. Adebayo. Ganoderma lucidum: Unutilized natural medicine and promising future solution to emerging diseases in Africa. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2022, 13
    10. Jingwei Lin, Huan Chen, Yudong Bai, Shoukun Li, Gengyuan Liang, Tianning Fan, Ningyuan Gao, Xiupeng Wu, Hui Li, Gang Chen, Yingxu Gao, Jungang Fan. Ganoderma immunomodulatory proteins: mushrooming functional FIPs. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2022, 106 (7) , 2367-2380.
    11. Uzma Altaf, S. A. J. Hashmi, Yash Pal Sharma. Therapeutic Potential of Mushroom Bioactive Nutraceuticals. 2022, 357-386.
    12. Divya Yadav, Pradeep Singh Negi. Bioactive components of mushrooms: Processing effects and health benefits. Food Research International 2021, 148 , 110599.
    13. Jameel R. Al-Obaidi, Nuzul Noorahya Jambari, E. I. Ahmad-Kamil. Mycopharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals: Promising Agents to Improve Human Well-Being and Life Quality. Journal of Fungi 2021, 7 (7) , 503.
    14. Dinesh K. Patel, Sayan Deb Dutta, Keya Ganguly, Seong-Jun Cho, Ki-Taek Lim. Mushroom-Derived Bioactive Molecules as Immunotherapeutic Agents: A Review. Molecules 2021, 26 (5) , 1359.
    15. Linfang Huang, Yu Cao. Chemical Components and Cancer Immunotherapy of Ganoderma. 2021, 177-191.
    16. Nowsheeba Rashid, Rouf Ahmad Bhat, Nighat Mushtaq, Ifra Ashraf. Exploitation of revered potent medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum with particular accent on oncotherapeutics. 2021, 397-431.
    17. Shuang Zhao, Qi Gao, Chengbo Rong, Shouxian Wang, Zhekun Zhao, Yu Liu, Jianping Xu. Immunomodulatory Effects of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms and Their Bioactive Immunoregulatory Products. Journal of Fungi 2020, 6 (4) , 269.
    18. Udochukwu Camillius Ejike, Chong Joo Chan, Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu, Renee Lay Hong Lim. New advances and potentials of fungal immunomodulatory proteins for therapeutic purposes. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 2020, 40 (8) , 1172-1190.
    19. Guogan Wu, Yu Sun, Tingshan Deng, Lili Song, Peng Li, Haijuan Zeng, Xueming Tang. Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel Immunomodulatory Protein From Morchella conica SH. Frontiers in Immunology 2020, 11
    20. Yusi Liu, Shanna Bastiaan-Net, Harry J. Wichers. Current Understanding of the Structure and Function of Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins. Frontiers in Nutrition 2020, 7
    21. Vala Rezvani, Hamid R. Pourianfar, Safoora Mohammadnejad, Alireza Madjid Ansari, Leila Farahmand. Anticancer potentiality and mode of action of low-carbohydrate proteins and peptides from mushrooms. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2020, 104 (16) , 6855-6871.
    22. Jack Ho Wong, Tzi Bun Ng, Helen Hei Ling Chan, Qin Liu, Gene Chi Wai Man, Chris Zhiyi Zhang, Suzhen Guan, Charlene Cheuk Wing Ng, Evandro Fei Fang, Hexiang Wang, Fang Liu, Xiuyun Ye, Krzysztof Rolka, Ryno Naude, Shuang Zhao, Ou Sha, Chunman Li, Lixin Xia. Mushroom extracts and compounds with suppressive action on breast cancer: evidence from studies using cultured cancer cells, tumor-bearing animals, and clinical trials. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2020, 104 (11) , 4675-4703.
    23. Nakarin Suwannarach, Jaturong Kumla, Kanaporn Sujarit, Thanawat Pattananandecha, Chalermpong Saenjum, Saisamorn Lumyong. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fungi as Potential Candidates for Protease Inhibitors and Immunomodulators to Apply for Coronaviruses. Molecules 2020, 25 (8) , 1800.
    24. Qi‐Zhang Li, Yu‐Zhou Chang, Zhu‐Mei He, Lei Chen, Xuan‐Wei Zhou. Immunomodulatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum immunomodulatory protein via PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2019, 234 (12) , 23337-23348.
    25. Ying Wang, Ying Nv Gao, Rui Bai, Hong Yu Chen, Ying Ying Wu, Jun Jun Shang, Da Peng Bao. Identification of a Novel Anti-cancer Protein, FIP-bbo, from Botryobasidium botryosum and Protein Structure Analysis using Molecular Dynamic Simulation. Scientific Reports 2019, 9 (1)
    26. Ruby Varghese, Yogesh Bharat Dalvi, Prasad Y. Lamrood, Bharat P. Shinde, C. K. K. Nair. Historical and current perspectives on therapeutic potential of higher basidiomycetes: an overview. 3 Biotech 2019, 9 (10)
    27. Yingnyu Gao, Ying Wáng, Ying Wāng, Yingying Wu, Hongyu Chen, Ruiheng Yang, Dapeng Bao. Protective Function of Novel Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins Fip-lti1 and Fip-lti2 from Lentinus tigrinus in Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Oxidative Injury. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2019, 2019 , 1-15.
    28. Li-Fang Zhu, Jing-Song Li, John Mai, Ming-Wei Chang. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of chitosan from fungal precursors for biomedical applications. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 357 , 498-507.
    29. Susanna M. Badalyan, Anush Barkhudaryan, Sylvie Rapior. Recent Progress in Research on the Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms and Prospects for Their Clinical Application. 2019, 1-70.
    30. Qi-Zhang Li, Yu-Zhang Zheng, Xuan-Wei Zhou. Fungal immunomodulatory proteins: characteristic, potential antitumor activities and their molecular mechanisms. Drug Discovery Today 2019, 24 (1) , 307-314.
    31. Ke-Di Shao, Pei-Wen Mao, Qi-Zhang Li, Liu-Ding-Ji Li, Yu-liang Wang, Xuan-Wei Zhou. Characterization of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein, FIP-SJ75 shuffled from Ganoderma lucidum , Flammulina velutipes and Volvariella volvacea. Food and Agricultural Immunology 2019, 30 (1) , 1253-1270.
    32. Zheng-Wei Qu, Si-Ya Zhou, Shi-Xin Guan, Rui Gao, Zuo-Wen Duan, Xin Zhang, Wei-Yan Sun, Wen-Li Fan, Shui-Sen Chen, Li-Jing Chen, Jing-Wei Lin, Yan-Ye Ruan. Recombinant Expression and Bioactivity Comparison of Four Typical Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins from Three Main Ganoderma Species. BMC Biotechnology 2018, 18 (1)
    33. Yu Cao, Xiaowei Xu, Shujing Liu, Linfang Huang, Jian Gu. Ganoderma: A Cancer Immunotherapy Review. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2018, 9
    34. Siya Zhou, Shixin Guan, Zuowen Duan, Xiao Han, Xin Zhang, Wenli Fan, Haoge Li, Lijing Chen, Hui Ma, Hangmei Liu, Yanye Ruan, Jingwei Lin. Molecular cloning, codon-optimized gene expression, and bioactivity assessment of two novel fungal immunomodulatory proteins from Ganoderma applanatum in Pichia. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2018, 102 (13) , 5483-5494.
    35. Gaoxing Ma, Wenjian Yang, Liyan Zhao, Fei Pei, Donglu Fang, Qiuhui Hu. A critical review on the health promoting effects of mushrooms nutraceuticals. Food Science and Human Wellness 2018, 7 (2) , 125-133.
    36. Shuying Li, Zhonghao Jiang, Wenyi Xu, Yingying Xie, Leiming Zhao, Xuanming Tang, Fengzhong Wang, Fengjiao Xin. FIP-sch2, a new fungal immunomodulatory protein from Stachybotrys chlorohalonata, suppresses proliferation and migration in lung cancer cells. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2017, 101 (8) , 3227-3235.
    37. Shuying Li, Zhonghao Jiang, Lichao Sun, Xin Liu, Ying Huang, Fengzhong Wang, Fengjiao Xin. Characterization of a new fungal immunomodulatory protein, FIP-dsq2 from Dichomitus squalens. Journal of Biotechnology 2017, 246 , 45-51.
    38. Ivette Suárez-Arroyo, Yaliz Loperena-Alvarez, Raysa Rosario-Acevedo, Michelle Martínez-Montemayor. Ganoderma spp.: A Promising Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer. Medicines 2017, 4 (1) , 15.
    39. Wen-Juan Li, Lu Li, Weng-Ya Zhen, Le-Feng Wang, Meng Pan, Jia-Qian Lv, Fan Wang, Yu-Fei Yao, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates ROS generation and apoptosis in spleen and thymus of immunosuppressed mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2017, 99 , 199-208.
    40. Biao Yuan, Liyan Zhao, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Yanhui Han, Zili Gao, Benard Muinde Kimatu, Qiuhui Hu, Hang Xiao. Isolation of a novel bioactive protein from an edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii and its anti-inflammatory potential. Food & Function 2017, 8 (6) , 2175-2183.
    41. Shuying Li, Leiming Zhao, Wenyi Xu, Zhonghao Jiang, Jun Kang, Fengzhong Wang, Fengjiao Xin, . Identification and Characterisation of a Novel Protein FIP-sch3 from Stachybotrys chartarum. PLOS ONE 2016, 11 (12) , e0168436.