Iron, Catechin, and Ferulic Acid Inhibit Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene by Reducing Micellization
- Johanita Kruger*Johanita Kruger*J.K.: tel, +49-711-459 23376; fax, +49-711-459 23386; e-mail; [email protected]; web, www.nutrition-research.de.Institute of Nutritional Sciences, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstraße 28, 70599 Stuttgart, GermanyDepartment of Food Science and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South AfricaMore by Johanita Kruger
- Wolfgang StuetzWolfgang StuetzInstitute of Nutritional Sciences, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstraße 28, 70599 Stuttgart, GermanyMore by Wolfgang Stuetz
- , and
- Jan Frank
Green leafy vegetables have low β-carotene bioavailability, which we hypothesized to be, at least in part, due to high contents of fiber, minerals, and phenolics. We investigated the effects of pectin (40–120 μg/mL), iron (50–150 μg/mL), ferulic acid (30–90 μg/mL), and catechin (50–150 μg/mL), in a model system, on β-carotene micellization (in vitro digestion) and intestinal absorption (Caco-2 cell model). Iron, pectin, ferulic acid, and catechin on average reduced (p < 0.05) β-carotene micellization (1.49 ± 0.05 μmol/L) by 66.9, 59.3, 43.2, and 51.7%, respectively. Iron reduced micellization by precipitating bile salts from solution and ferulic acid and catechin by inhibition of pancreatic lipase. β-Carotene uptake by Caco-2 cells (2.63 ± 0.22%) was reduced (p < 0.05) by 37.4, 70.1, 77.0, and 75.1%, respectively, when it was digested with pectin, iron, ferulic acid, or catechin. However, when individual test compounds were added to already micellized β-carotene, they did not inhibit β-carotene uptake. The large reductions in β-carotene micellization observed in vitro warrant further investigation in humans using model green leafy vegetable systems to elucidate their relevance under real-life conditions.
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