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Liquid–Liquid Equilibria of Formic Acid and Furfural in a Biphasic Aqueous–Organic System: Optimization of Solvent and Amine Extractant

  • Shaobing Zou
    Shaobing Zou
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, People’s Republic of China
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  • Yajing Zhao
    Yajing Zhao
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, People’s Republic of China
    More by Yajing Zhao
  • Pingli Li*
    Pingli Li
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, People’s Republic of China
    *Tel: +86-022-27421723. Fax: +86-022-27404347. E-mail: [email protected]
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  • Heying Chang
    Heying Chang
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, People’s Republic of China
    More by Heying Chang
  • , and 
  • Yingdong Li
    Yingdong Li
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, People’s Republic of China
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Cite this: J. Chem. Eng. Data 2018, 63, 12, 4314–4324
Publication Date (Web):November 9, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jced.8b00335
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Liquid–liquid equilibria of formic acid (FA) and furfural in a biphasic aqueous–organic system were studied. Fourteen kinds of samples with a high boiling point and a large density difference with water were first screened to measure the distribution coefficient of furfural. Eight solvents with a high furfural distribution coefficient were further screened for FA extraction. Six solvents (1,2-dimethoxybenzene, 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitrobenzene, diethyl phthalate, tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phthalate, and dibutyl sebacate) with a low FA distribution coefficient were then selected to measure the mutual solubilities at 298.15 K. Furthermore, two amine extractants (tri-n-octylamine and amine N235) were diluted in six solvents for the extraction of FA and furfural from aqueous solutions to optimize the solvent and extractant. 2,4-Dimethyl-1-nitrobenzene or diethyl phthalate was proven to be more suitable for this system. Effects of the amine extractant concentration in solvents were evaluated to balance the furfural and FA distribution coefficients with a smaller loss of furfural selectivity and significantly increasing FA selectivity, and the thermal decomposition of FA and furfural in selected solvent + amine extractant systems was then studied. In general, 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitrobenzene (15 wt % amine N235) favored the extraction equilibrium of FA with acceptable furfural selectivity loss. Typically, when the mass concentration of amine extractant in the solvent is increased from 0 to 15 wt %, the distribution coefficient for FA increases from 0.027 to 6.676 and the distribution coefficient for furfural decreased from 14.491 to 8.290. The 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitrobenzene-containing product was thermally stable enough at 473.15 K.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.jced.8b00335.

    • Uncertainty analysis, analysis and quantitation of furfural and formic acid using HPLC, experimental data evaluation, partition coefficient of levulinic acid, and solvents and amine extractants evaluation (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 1 publications.

    1. Beatriz Medeiros Travália, Marcus Bruno Soares Forte. New Proposal in a Biorefinery Context: Recovery of Acetic and Formic Acids by Adsorption on Hydrotalcites. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 2020, 65 (9) , 4503-4511. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jced.0c00340

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