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Open Digital Educational Resources for Self-Training Chemistry Lab Safety Rules

  • Valérie Camel*
    Valérie Camel
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
    *Email: [email protected]
  • Marie-Noëlle Maillard
    Marie-Noëlle Maillard
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
  • Nicolas Descharles
    Nicolas Descharles
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
  • Even Le Roux
    Even Le Roux
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
    More by Even Le Roux
  • Mathieu Cladière
    Mathieu Cladière
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
  • , and 
  • Isabelle Billault
    Isabelle Billault
    Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, 91405, Orsay, France
Cite this: J. Chem. Educ. 2021, 98, 1, 208–217
Publication Date (Web):June 28, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00094

Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc. This publication is available under these Terms of Use.

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Abstract

Educational resources that cover essential knowledge related to chemistry safety rules are openly accessible on the CHIMACTIV website (http://chimactiv.agroparistech.fr/). Organized into two online tracks, the content covers personal and collective protections, first aid, as well as the handling of hazardous chemicals. Being interactive and abundantly illustrated by photos and videos, these resources may be used by teachers to encourage (or even oblige) their students to self-train before lab sessions. Our user experience shows that students improve their chemical safety knowledge and culture upon consulting these resources: they arrive in the lab more confident and are more attentive to safety rules (especially concerning safety glasses and gloves), with a deeper knowledge of chemical hazards and of waste management options. Thanks to their digital responsiveness, these open resources may also be accessible during the lab sessions, enabling the students to get the information “just-in-time”. In addition, decision trees for liquid and solid waste management are available, helping the students to gain reflexivity as well as to acquire good laboratory practice during lab sessions. In this way, the supervisors of the practical work sessions waste much less time taking back students who do not follow the safety rules properly.

This publication is licensed for personal use by The American Chemical Society.

SPECIAL ISSUE

This article is part of the Chemical Safety Education: Methods, Culture, and Green Chemistry special issue.

Introduction

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Safety rules should be prerequisite knowledge for students and trainees before chemistry lab sessions in order to prevent incidents. (1) In our graduate programs, students mostly originate from biological undergraduate programs and therefore often have experience in a biological lab, but little specific experience of a chemistry lab. As a result, we regularly face students who arrive at their lab sessions without deep knowledge of the proper behavior to adopt in a chemistry lab.
Teaching safety rules in the classroom before lab can be boring and uninteresting for students. Moreover, the time to devote to such instruction is often lacking in our programs. Short interventions at the beginning of lab sessions have been reported to positively influence safety knowledge, safety perception, as well as safety attitudes of students, at least over a short-term period. (2) However, teaching safety rules at the beginning of lab sessions is uncomfortable, with subsequent reduced time for the practical experiments. Moreover, some aspects of safety require actions to be taken before arriving in the lab, such as wearing the appropriate clothing.
Previously reported studies have shown the interest of digital resources for preparing students for the chemical laboratory. In particular, short videos or photographs showing the experiments or the lab environment were found to be beneficial, as they allow the students to visualize what they will have to do. (3−5) This prevents cognitive overload at the beginning of lab sessions, enabling students to be more involved in their lab work. (6,7) Data acquired using a pre- and post-test format, or an experimental versus control groups strategy, showed that students performed better during the lab sessions when a prelab description of activities or visualization resources were accessible. (4,6) In addition, survey questionnaires clearly revealed that students perceived a positive effect of prelab material on their learning. (3) Saleh (4,5) reported that the majority (around 80%) of students agreed with the usefulness of safety videos for understanding the safety rules as well as following the recommended precautions. Withers et al. (8) found equivalent learning outcomes and one-year retention for students using a digital safety program as compared to a traditional safety course, but they suggested potential cost benefits with a computer-based program.
In such a context, we have developed digital interactive resources enabling the students to self-train chemistry safety rules before lab sessions. These open educational resources are available on the website CHIMACTIV (http://chimactiv.agroparistech.fr/), (9) in two dedicated sections: (1) protections and first aid, and (2) handling of dangerous chemicals. The graphic design and browsing are attractive, (10) since our own students were involved early in the design phase. The site’s interactive features are available on any digital consultation device, allowing students to use them at home and also in the lab on their smartphone; this enables the delivery of knowledge “just-in-time”. In this paper, after a presentation of the content of these open interactive resources, we discuss their alignment with the safety paradigm recommended by the American Chemical Society (ACS). Then, consultation data and examples of teaching scenarios for integrating these educational resources are presented, and the observed benefits are described.

Training Basic Rules for Protecting the Operators

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Personal Protection

One major point for students lies in adopting adequate behavior when entering the lab. In particular, even though students in graduate programs are quite used to wearing a lab coat, they sometimes fail to close it properly or remove it when leaving the lab or they do not wear, in addition to their lab coat, working clothes suitable for laboratory work. The front page of the personal protective equipment (PPE) section clearly shows how to properly wear a lab coat (see Figure 1). Several interactive icons are available, providing more details about the proper dress, lab coat, face protection, and protection gloves.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Personal protective equipment (PPE) front page, with details shown regarding lab coats.

Appropriate clothing is detailed, since we have experienced students coming to the lab sessions with shorts or open shoes, especially during summer time. Preventing such at risk dress is essential for protecting the students from possible skin contact through splashes or spills, and this starts with proper education before lab sessions. Students are advised to wear long lower body clothes for better protection in case of projections or incidents, and they are reminded that short clothes (i.e., shorts or miniskirts) are not allowed in the lab. Recommendations concerning appropriate footwear are also given: shoes should be closed to protect the feet (ballerina shoes and flip flops are forbidden in the lab), and comfortable (heel lifts are tolerated, but high heels are not), allowing one to quickly step aside from the bench in case of a spill.
Details related to the lab coat are depicted in Figure 1. Lab coats should cover the knees and arms fully. That the lab coat should be closed is also clearly indicated. Lab coats made from 100% cotton with snaps are recommended to limit flammability as well as to allow for rapid opening and removal in case of incident.
Face protection is frequently unfamiliar to students, or even neglected completely. In particular, we have observed that graduate students often lack the proper attitude regarding eye protection, as they are convinced their manipulations are safe or that, in any case, they will be able to complete them successfully, so that there is no risk to their eyes (that is, they feel a kind of invincibility). As reported by Ayi and Hon, low risk perception is also encountered in academic research laboratories, leading to noncompliance with safety rules, in particular with respect to the wearing of PPE. (11) Additionally, students may feel uncomfortable and/or ridiculous wearing protection goggles. On the site, they are advised about the importance of wearing safety glasses for all manipulations in the lab (including under a fume hood), even if they already wear reading glasses, due to additional protection offered in the case of chemical projections. The prohibition of wearing contact lenses in the lab is highlighted, since this is generally not known by our students. Proper hair protection is indicated (long haired students are advised to tie it back), and the possibility of using a hygienic cap is mentioned. Using masks in appropriate cases (i.e., when handling powdered chemicals) to protect the operator’s lungs is also presented.
As far as protective gloves are concerned, very few students know the different types that exist, nor which ones they should use depending on the experiment and reagents or solvents they will have to deal with in the lab. So, we detail the main types of gloves they may find in a lab as well as their possible applications: latex gloves (white in appearance) are effective against acid and basic aqueous solutions and may be replaced by vinyl ones (translucent) in the case of allergy to latex. However, both types of gloves are inappropriate for organic solvents. Nitrile gloves (shown in blue or green but might exist in other appearances) are suitable for both aqueous solutions (except for strong acids and bases) and organic solvents.

Collective Protection

Since safe individual behaviors are mandatory to protect everyone present in the lab, we provide important information related to collective protection as well. We have divided this section in three parts: room, bench, and hood (see Figure 2).

Figure 2

Figure 2. Collective protection front page, with recommendations related to bench safety shown.

The room section is useful to remind the students to appropriately store their bags and personal belongings. This is sometimes tricky to achieve in practice due to a lack of dedicated spaces in most laboratories; as a consequence, students are advised to place their bags under the bench. Photographs illustrate the fact that bags in the aisle are obstacles that may result in incidents or even accidents and injuries given the number of students working at the same time in the laboratory. The ban on eating and drinking is also recalled, as well as the ban on running in the lab.
In the bench part, students are reminded to keep the area on the laboratory bench well-organized in order to prevent any spilling or other incident caused by a lack of space. Again, photographs are presented that depict both a clear working space and a congested one (see Figure 2). Students are also advised to indicate on any glass container the nature of the contents as well as its concentration. This prevents improper mixing and the risk of exothermic reactions.
Wrapping up the collective protection part, instructions regarding the fume hood are also presented. First, the simple operation of switching on the aspiration is illustrated by means of a photograph. Then, good laboratory practice (GLP) relative to the correct position of the window pane is also shown with several illustrative photographs: one showing a window pane in high position resulting in inefficient fume hood aspiration and the potential hazard of operator exposure, and another showing the same window pane correctly positioned to ensure the proper protection.

First Aid

In the case of an incident or accident occurring in the chemistry lab, emergency actions must be taken. First aid actions to assist the possible victim, such as rinsing the injured eye under a cold or warm trickle of water, are listed in one pane (see Figure 3), while in another, rescue devices are presented (fire extinguishers, emergency shower, eye wash, and fire blanket). The purpose of these diagrams is to acquaint the students with the different devices that exist rather than to detail the operating instructions for each item. Being trained for the particular environment of a chemistry lab is a prerequisite for adopting safe behavior.

Figure 3

Figure 3. First aid front page, with details shown related to emergency techniques in case of incidents.

Illustrative Videos

To help students to integrate the different recommendations or advice presented and to adopt safe behavior in the lab during experimental practice, two short videos are proposed. Each shows an operator entering the lab and starting some basic manipulations. The video “A bad day of experimental work” shows unsafe behavior and actions to avoid, while the video “A good day of experimental work” shows safe behavior and actions to adopt. We believe that showing the unsafe behavior is complementary and as important as presenting the proper behavior. The videos are made with a sense of humor, in order to better leave a mark in the viewers’ memory.

Handling Dangerous Chemicals

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Students operating during lab sessions may be required to handle dangerous chemicals. This is routine in academic research laboratories, as reported by Ayi and Hon, with 83% of participants in their study spending up to 30 h per week handling chemicals. (11)

Recognizing the Types of Chemicals

Obviously, knowledge about chemicals is essential to prevent students from making mistakes which might result in incidents such as damage or injury. We have distinguished three essential themes which appear on the front page of this section (see Figure 4): the hazard pictograms from the global harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals, (12) the chemicals’ categories, and their storage conditions.

Figure 4

Figure 4. Chemicals front page, with details related to hazard pictograms and focus on the corrosive substances pictogram (CLP: classification, labeling, and packaging).

Previous studies reported that students may be unaware of chemical hazards and their labeling, so that it is crucial to familiarize them with the hazard pictograms. (13−15) In addition to ensuring proper behavior in the lab, this also promotes similar safe behavior in other contexts, such as when using biocides at home, for example. Pictograms are organized into three groups, depending on the dangers (see Figure 4): physical hazards (such as explosion, corrosion, etc.), human health damage (such as reproductive toxicity), and chemicals that are toxic for the environment (for example toxic for aquatic life). All pictograms are interactive on the website, so that the reader can see some details about the meaning of each pictogram as well as the hazard statements according to the international labeling regulation (see the example of corrosive substances in Figure 4). Information relative to health toxicity is further detailed with all the hazard statements listed, and some recommendations for safe handling are given.
From the front page, the visitor can also access descriptions of the different types of chemicals (i.e., organic solvents, reagents, toxic products, acids and bases). Each type is further detailed in specific pages. Briefly, most common organic solvents are listed according to their functional groups (e.g., alcohols, esters), and it is clearly mentioned if a fume hood is needed for their handling due to their properties (such as volatility or toxicity). Then, essential information relative to acids and bases is given on a separate page: they may be either organic or mineral, present in different physical states, and exert strong or weak proton affinity. The need for wearing PPE and manipulating the chemical under a fume hood is also clearly explained here.
Caution about the reactivity of some chemicals is detailed in another page of this safety section, with examples of precise chemical reactions as well as details about the relative hazards labeling and statements.
Finally, proper storage conditions are recalled in the last part of this subsection of the safety track. Besides elementary storage conditions in a safety cabinet, details are also given for storage conditions in the laboratory (i.e., in the fridge or under the fume hood). A table of chemical compatibility for storage is also given, based on labeling pictograms.

Managing Liquid Wastes

Proper management of liquid waste is mandatory in the lab. Yet, students are often not familiar with this aspect of lab safety. In addition, proper management depends on the type of liquid or mixture, and it requires some reflection.
On the CHIMACTIV website, we introduce students to the different options available when throwing away a liquid chemical. The aim is to avoid any hazardous reaction upon mixing chemicals (thereby avoiding incident or accident in the lab) as well as at to prevent environmental contamination. Then, we give simple and practical advice with regard to disposal containers (“What I must throw in”/“What I can throw in”/“What I must not throw in”) for the main categories of liquid waste encountered in chemistry laboratories (see Figure 5): nonhalogenated organic solvents, halogenated organic solvents, toxic liquids, organic and mineral acidic liquids, and organic and mineral basic liquids. Finally, practical tips about how to properly and safely throw liquid waste in the suitable containers are detailed.

Figure 5

Figure 5. Liquid waste front page, with some details of the interactive decision tree for choosing the best options for sorting liquid waste (CMR: carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to reproduction).

To help students familiarize themselves with the appropriate waste option, an interactive decision tree is proposed (see Figure 5). It is entirely downloadable in pdf format, enabling the students and their teachers to keep this decision tree on their own digital devices or to print it and refer to it when they are in the lab.

Managing Solid Wastes

This subsection is organized in a similar way as the previous one related to liquid waste. From the front page, an interactive decision tree is accessible for finding the best management option (see Figure 6), which is readily downloadable and printable for convenient use.

Figure 6

Figure 6. Solid waste front page, with some details of the interactive decision tree for choosing the best options for sorting solid waste.

In practice, we have observed that students have little knowledge about solid waste, resulting in unsafe behavior or actions (such as throwing their gloves in conventional trash). So, we detail the main types of solid waste they might encounter in a chemistry lab: pointed and/or sharp soiled waste, nonpointed and/or nonsharp soiled waste, unsoiled laboratory waste, chromatography vials, and other unsoiled waste. Here again, simple and practical advice and recommendations are sorted according to “What I must throw in”/“What I can throw in”/“What I must not throw in” (see Figure 6). These are accompanied by short tips for proper and safe disposal of solid waste in suitable containers.

Exercising

Two interactive exercises are proposed to help the students memorize previously delivered knowledge in this section. In each one, four different liquid wastes are proposed, and students have to drag-and-drop each of them in the proper container among five that are proposed.

Alignment of Our Resources with the ACS Safety Paradigm

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The ACS guidelines relative to chemical safety education are based on the following paradigm: Recognize the hazards, Assess the risks of hazards, Minimize the risks of hazards, Prepare for emergencies. (16,17) This is the so-called RAMP approach.

Recognize the Hazards

This part of the RAMP approach is the most covered in our digital resources since it is “the key first step to safety”. (18) Our digital resources enable students to get familiar with the GHS and its pictograms before entering the lab, as well as with the different classes of toxic chemicals. They are also introduced to acute and chronic toxicities. Concise information is delivered so that students should be able to rapidly understand the labeling of chemical containers, thereby recognizing these chemical hazards.

Assess the Risks of the Hazards

Along with the GHS pictograms, the CHIMACTIV website introduces hazard statements to the students. They are thus aware of the fact that a similar pictogram could reflect different degrees of health effects (death, cancer, irritation, allergies, etc.). This knowledge is useful for students to quickly assess what the risks during their lab session are.

Minimize the Risks of the Hazards

Our resources enable students to inform themselves about the protective measures (PPE and collective protection). This should prevent their unnecessary exposure to chemical products due to inappropriate operating conditions. They also find recommendations for proper use of PPE, especially for choosing the gloves adapted to the considered chemicals. In addition, they are also warned about basic rules related to bench organization before starting the experiment, as well as advised to put their personal belongings in an appropriate place in the room to avoid any incident.

Prepare for Emergencies from Uncontrolled Hazards

The first aid section of the CHIMACTIV website provides the minimal knowledge regarding emergency procedures in the case of chemical or thermal burns, or in the case of accidental contact with a chemical. In addition, a brief description of the different emergency devices enables students to identify them in the lab, avoiding the need to look for them in case of an emergency. This is not meant to replace a complete training session in laboratory first aid, but instead to provide everyone with the minimum knowledge to ensure lab safety.

Using These Resources in Practice

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Our data from a short survey (based on an anonymous questionnaire) carried out during a workshop dedicated to chemistry education revealed great interest in the part of teachers of many different levels (from high school to university) in these resources: 80% of 23 respondents intended to use these safety tracks with their students, mainly as support for experimental sessions. (19) By putting into practice the safety rules during the lab sessions, these teachers can help their students to acquire safe laboratory behavior. Also, these open digital resources could be valuable for developing countries where teachers’ safety training remains insufficient. (20,21)

Consultation Statistics

Statistical data relative to the CHIMACTIV website consultation are available monthly and include all visitors, not only our students. On the basis of the integrated online survey, our visitors profile is around 54% students (from high school to master degrees), 15% teachers, and 7% nonteaching professionals (unfortunately, the information is missing for 24% of responders). (22)
Over the sole period 1–20 January 2020, there were 6,711 visits on the website, resulting in a total of 21,346 views on the French version and 3,110 on the English version (see Figure 7). Looking deeper into the data, the Safety section has around 2,000 views. Since it offers only two digital sheets while other CHIMACTIV sections have from 4 to 15 sheets, it is more valuable to assess the view numbers per digital sheet for each section of the website to draw the comparison. Interestingly, the Safety section has the highest rank for the French version of the website (see Figure 7). It also ranks well for the English version, but due to the lower number of views in this language until now, new data is required to confirm this statement.

Figure 7

Figure 7. Consultation data of the open resources of the website CHIMACTIV (categorized by their section) over the period 1–20 January 2020.

It is noticeable that, in either language (French or English), the views of the CHIMACTIV safety resources are divided into approximately 60% for chemical hazard and 40% for protection. This is most likely due to the prior knowledge of our graduate students, who are more familiar with protective equipment. Indeed, previous surveys among teachers have clearly pointed out the importance of improving knowledge of handling hazardous chemicals. (21)

Back from our Teaching Experience

We have been using the digital resources with our graduate students for about three years now. Interestingly, several academic programs have been concerned, with diverse profiles of students. In particular, their knowledge and interest in chemistry vary greatly, ranging from biologists with a limited experience in a chemistry lab to more experienced chemists who are quite familiar with basic safety rules. As a consequence, the time devoted to chemistry lab sessions differs between these academic programs.
Fortunately, the open education resources of the CHIMACTIV website allow a wide range of teaching and learning experiences. In our case, two teaching scenarios have been conceived and tested for integrating these resources in chemistry courses that include lab sessions. Each aims to promote the self-training of students before they enter the lab (see Figure 8).

Figure 8

Figure 8. Different scenarios tested to train our students with these open educational resources.

The simplest scenario lies in advising the students to consult these safety resources: this entails a brief presentation (either oral or written) of the CHIMACTIV website and its browsing tools, (10) as well as an explicit admonition that they need to acquire minimal knowledge for their safety in the lab. This scenario has been tested in the setting of general academic programs. Satisfaction surveys filled out by the students at the end of the courses do suggest that they direct their visits based on their prior knowledge, spending more time on the resources they have not yet acquired or are brand new to them. Upon their arrival in the lab for the first session, students were then asked about the main safety issues, in order to reinforce the key messages before starting the experiments.
A more thorough integration of these open safety resources has been also attempted in an academic chemistry program by adding an explicit request that each student watch the video “A bad day of experimental work” and send the teacher at least five unsafe behaviors or actions that he/she had identified in the video. The students were all capable of identifying at least five mistakes, and this exercise was aimed at focusing their attention on safety rules before entering the lab.
In addition, these safety resources are now included in the welcome package for traineeship students in our research lab. They are kindly asked by the safety manager to consult these open resources prior to their first manipulations in the lab. Each trainee can then review, at his/her own pace, safety information previously mentioned during the lab safety visit and refer to the website as often as needed for more complex actions (e.g., management of chemical waste). The importance of the safety manager for preventing incidents has been evidenced by Schröder et al. (23) Yet, as pointed out by these authors, lab safety is commonly introduced to new students by an experienced fellow student or staff in academic research laboratories. In such a context, our digital educational resources could be attractive for several academic laboratories to implement the training of their new students.

Observed Benefits for Students

We have noticed our students to be more attentive to their PPE when arriving in the lab, especially with regards to safety glasses and gloves. In particular, they pay attention to the different types of gloves that are present, and to which are the most suitable to the experiments they will have to perform. Videos and photos available in our resources are probably key elements of this effective safety training as already mentioned. (5)
We also have observed students arriving in the lab more familiar with the lab environment and thus more confident. Engaging in discussions with them at the beginning of the lab sessions revealed them to be more aware of safety rules, and to have a deeper knowledge of chemicals than before their self-training thanks to the CHIMACTIV website. Our students did confirm their feeling of having learned important aspects of lab safety from the website.
During the lab sessions, they were much more aware of the waste management options. On this latter point, we note that printing both decision trees in a large format and posting them in the chemistry lab (see Figure 9) can be very convenient in practice. Students can refer to these posters at any time during their lab sessions, to make sure they face the correct management option. This is also very helpful for their understanding of the principles underlying these decision trees. We also noted that a large proportion of the students preferred to consult the decision tree on their own smartphone during the session in order to ensure that the chemical waste from their experience was emptied into the appropriate container.

Figure 9

Figure 9. View of our chemistry lab with both decision trees (liquid and solid wastes) displayed, and details of both trees.

Students were also surveyed about their satisfaction with these resources (using individual anonymous questionnaires), and their feeling about their usefulness in preparing for the lab sessions. Results related to two groups of graduate chemistry students indicate that, in spite of some discrepancy between the groups, a great majority of the students perceived these resources as useful in their preparation for the lab sessions (see Figure 10). This feeling is even higher when nonchemistry students are surveyed (near 100% of students), due to their limited prior knowledge related to safety.

Figure 10

Figure 10. Perception of graduate chemistry students with regards to the usefulness of each digital safety section for lab sessions.

Conclusion

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Open educational resources related to chemical safety are available on the CHIMACTIV website. Interactive and responsive, they are attractive options for helping students to self-train before entering the lab, or for consultation during the lab sessions. Different scenarios have already been tested for using these resources which can be adopted by other interested teachers. Our data with respect to the students’ perception of the usefulness of these resources is promising. Teachers’ observations in the lab do confirm the valuable aspect of these resources, since students arrive in the lab more familiar with the lab environment (e.g., safety devices) and more aware of safety rules.

Author Information

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  • Corresponding Author
  • Authors
    • Marie-Noëlle Maillard - Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
    • Nicolas Descharles - Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
    • Even Le Roux - Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
    • Mathieu Cladière - Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, UMR SayFood, 91300, Massy, France
    • Isabelle Billault - Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, 91405, Orsay, France
  • Notes
    The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Acknowledgments

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The authors acknowledge the Université Paris-Saclay for its funding creation of the website CHIMACTIV (IDEX funding attributed on the different calls for projects “Former par le numérique” 2014, and “Initiatives pédagogiques—Transformer” 2016 and 2018). They are also highly grateful to Dr Eric Finster for his careful reading and English corrections of the revised manuscript.

References

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    Sedghpour, B. S.; Sabbaghan, M.; Sataei, F. M. A survey on the pre service chemistry teachers’ lab safety education. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2013, 90, 5762,  DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.065
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    Camel, V.; Maillard, M.-N.; Cladière, M.; Fitoussi, G.; Piard, J.; Dumas, C.; Brun, E.; Billault, I.; Sicard-Roselli, C. CHIMACTIV, un site pour se former à l’analyse chimique. L’Actualité Chimique 2020, 448, 749762
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    Schröder, I.; Huang, D. Y. Q.; Ellis, O.; Gibson, J. H.; Wayne, N. L. Laboratory safety attitudes and practices: A comparison of academic, government, and industry researchers. J. Chem. Health Saf. 2016, 23 (1), 1223,  DOI: 10.1016/j.jchas.2015.03.001

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  • Abstract

    Figure 1

    Figure 1. Personal protective equipment (PPE) front page, with details shown regarding lab coats.

    Figure 2

    Figure 2. Collective protection front page, with recommendations related to bench safety shown.

    Figure 3

    Figure 3. First aid front page, with details shown related to emergency techniques in case of incidents.

    Figure 4

    Figure 4. Chemicals front page, with details related to hazard pictograms and focus on the corrosive substances pictogram (CLP: classification, labeling, and packaging).

    Figure 5

    Figure 5. Liquid waste front page, with some details of the interactive decision tree for choosing the best options for sorting liquid waste (CMR: carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to reproduction).

    Figure 6

    Figure 6. Solid waste front page, with some details of the interactive decision tree for choosing the best options for sorting solid waste.

    Figure 7

    Figure 7. Consultation data of the open resources of the website CHIMACTIV (categorized by their section) over the period 1–20 January 2020.

    Figure 8

    Figure 8. Different scenarios tested to train our students with these open educational resources.

    Figure 9

    Figure 9. View of our chemistry lab with both decision trees (liquid and solid wastes) displayed, and details of both trees.

    Figure 10

    Figure 10. Perception of graduate chemistry students with regards to the usefulness of each digital safety section for lab sessions.

  • References

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      Sedghpour, B. S.; Sabbaghan, M.; Sataei, F. M. A survey on the pre service chemistry teachers’ lab safety education. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2013, 90, 5762,  DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.065
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      Camel, V.; Maillard, M.-N.; Cladière, M.; Fitoussi, G.; Piard, J.; Dumas, C.; Brun, E.; Billault, I.; Sicard-Roselli, C. CHIMACTIV, un site pour se former à l’analyse chimique. L’Actualité Chimique 2020, 448, 749762
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      Schröder, I.; Huang, D. Y. Q.; Ellis, O.; Gibson, J. H.; Wayne, N. L. Laboratory safety attitudes and practices: A comparison of academic, government, and industry researchers. J. Chem. Health Saf. 2016, 23 (1), 1223,  DOI: 10.1016/j.jchas.2015.03.001

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