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Fibrinolysis Inhibitors: Potential Drugs for the Treatment and Prevention of Bleeding

Cite this: J. Med. Chem. 2020, 63, 4, 1445–1472
Publication Date (Web):October 28, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01060
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Hyperfibrinolytic situations can lead to life-threatening bleeding, especially during cardiac surgery. The approved antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid, ε-aminocaproic acid, 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid, and aprotinin were developed in the 1960s without the structural insight of their respective targets. Crystal structures of the main antifibrinolytic targets, the lysine binding sites on plasminogen’s kringle domains, and plasmin’s serine protease domain greatly contributed to the structure-based drug design of novel inhibitor classes. Two series of ligands targeting the lysine binding sites have been recently described, which are more potent than the most-widely used antifibrinolytic agent, tranexamic acid. Furthermore, four types of promising active site inhibitors of plasmin have been developed: tranexamic acid conjugates targeting the S1 pocket and primed sites, substrate-analogue linear homopiperidylalanine-containing 4-amidinobenzylamide derivatives, macrocyclic inhibitors addressing nonprimed binding regions, and bicyclic 14-mer SFTI-1 analogues blocking both, primed and nonprimed binding sites of plasmin. Furthermore, several allosteric plasmin inhibitors based on heparin mimetics have been developed.

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