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Induction of Antioxidant Metabolites in Moringa oleifera Callus by Abiotic Stresses

  • Letizia Zanella
    Letizia Zanella
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • Angelo Gismondi
    Angelo Gismondi
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • Gabriele Di Marco
    Gabriele Di Marco
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • Roberto Braglia
    Roberto Braglia
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • Francesco Scuderi
    Francesco Scuderi
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • Enrico L. Redi
    Enrico L. Redi
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
  • Andrea Galgani
    Andrea Galgani
    Interdepartmental Centre for Animal Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome 00133, Italy
  • , and 
  • Antonella Canini*
    Antonella Canini
    Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Rome 00133, Italy
    *Tel (A. Canini): +39 06 7259 4333. Fax: +39 06 20 25 300. E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: J. Nat. Prod. 2019, 82, 9, 2379–2386
Publication Date (Web):August 20, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00801
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy

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    Abstract

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    Moringa oleifeira has recently been subjected to numerous scientific studies pursuing its biological properties. However, biotechnological approaches promoting the synthesis of pharmacological compounds in this species are still scarce, despite the fact that moringa metabolites have shown significant nutraceutical effects. For this reason, in vitro cultures of moringa callus, obtained from leaf explantation, were subjected to various abiotic stresses such as temperature, salicylic acid, and NaCl, to identify the best growth conditions for the production of high levels of antioxidant molecules. Temperature stresses (exposure to 4 and 45 °C) led to no significant variation in moringa callus, in terms of antiradical metabolites, whereas salicylic acid (200 μM) and NaCl (50–100 μM) affected an increase of total phenolic compounds, after 15 and 30 days of treatment. Overall, the treatment with 100 μM NaCl for 30 days showed the highest free radical scavenging activity, comparable to that measured in moringa leaf. In addition, high doses of NaCl (200 μM) inhibited callus growth and reduced the amount and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of callus. This study provides useful information to standardize growth conditions for the production of secondary metabolites in moringa in vitro cultures, a biotechnological system that could be employed for a rapid, controlled, and guaranteed production of antioxidant molecules for pharmaceutical purposes.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00801.

    • Concentrations of secondary metabolite in moringa callus exposed to different temperature stress and in young leaves obtained by germination of seeds; total phenol content in moringa callus exposed to different temperature stress; antiradical activity of the extracts from moringa callus exposed to different temperature stress (PDF)

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