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Coupled Electromagnetic and Reaction Kinetics Simulation of Super-Resolution Interference Lithography

Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. B 2020, 124, 35, 7717–7724
Publication Date (Web):August 6, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c05194
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Inspired by the ability of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy to circumvent the diffraction barrier, two-color super-resolution interference lithography exploits nonequilibrium kinetics in materials to achieve large-area nanopatterning while using visible light. Periodic patterns with super-resolved features down to tens of nanometers have been demonstrated in thin films and monolayers. Extending these advances to the bulk nanopatterning of thick films requires a quantitative understanding of the time-dependent interactions of optical dynamics, including absorption, diffraction, and intensity modulation at two wavelengths, with the photoactivated and inhibited reaction kinetics. Here, we develop an efficient electromagnetic (EM) perturbation theory approach that facilitates for the first time fully coupled simulations of EM and chemical kinetics in two-color interference lithography. Applied to a spirothiopyran-functionalized photoresist system, these simulations show that diffraction and absorption effects are negligible (<0.1%) for depths up to 10 μm, and that tuning exposure time and intensities can lead to concentration contrast up to 80%. We investigate multiple exposure strategies to reduce the pitch of the line pattern including sequential exposures with different times to achieve uniform lines and multiplexed exposures with equal periods. This capability to rapidly and accurately predict the coupled optical and chemical dynamics facilitates the computational design of high-precision patterns in two-color interference lithography.

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    Note that the lines will be at separation Lx/2 following the periodicity of the intensity, which is the square of the electric field with periodicity Lx.

    For notational convenience, we have absorbed prefactors of ϵ0, c, and ω into the definition of A so that we can write intensity as I = |A|2.

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 1 publications.

    1. Minfei He, Zhimin Zhang, Chun Cao, Guozun Zhou, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu. 3D Sub‐Diffraction Printing by Multicolor Photoinhibition Lithography: From Optics to Chemistry. Laser & Photonics Reviews 2022, 16 (2) https://doi.org/10.1002/lpor.202100229

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