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Functionalized Two-Dimensional Nanoporous Graphene as Efficient Global Anode Materials for Li-, Na-, K-, Mg-, and Ca-Ion Batteries

Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. C 2020, 124, 18, 9734–9745
Publication Date (Web):April 8, 2020
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Two-dimensional nanoporous graphene (NPG) with uniformly distributed nanopores has been synthesized recently and shown remarkable electronic, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties with potential applications in several fields. Here, we explore the potential application of NPG as an anode material for Li-, Na-, K-, Mg-, and Ca-ion batteries. We use density functional theory calculations to study structural properties, defect formation energies, metal binding energies, charge analysis, and electronic structures of NPG monolayers. Pristine NPG can bind effectively K+ cations but cannot sufficiently bind the other metal cations strongly, which is a prerequisite of an efficient anode material. However, upon substitution with oxygen-rich functional groups (e.g., O, OH, and COOH) and doping with heteroatoms (B, N, P, and S), the metal binding ability of NPG is significantly enhanced. Of the considered systems, the S-doped NPG (S-NPG) binds the metal cations most strongly with binding energies of −3.87 (Li), −3.28 (Na), −3.37 (K), −3.68 (Mg), and −4.97 (Ca) eV, followed by P-NPG, O-NPG, B-NPG, and N-NPG. Of the substituted NPG systems, O-substituted NPG exhibits the strongest metal binding with binding energies of −3.30 (Li), −2.62 (Na), −2.89 (K), −1.67 (Mg), and −3.40 eV (Ca). Bader charge analysis and Roby–Gould bond indices show that a significant amount of charge is transferred from the metal cations to the functionalized NPG monolayers. Electronic properties were studied by density of states plots, and all the systems were found to be metallic upon the introduction of metal cations. These results suggest that functionalized NPG could be used as a global anode material for Li-, Na-, K-, Mg-, and Ca-ion batteries.

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    • Lattice sites for hydrogen substitutional defects and carbon substitutional defects; adsorption energies table; optimized structures of defected and substituted NPG monolayers; formation energies table; TDOS plots of functionalized systems; and AIMD plots of the S-NPG monolayer (PDF)

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