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Solid-State Photon Upconversion Materials: Structural Integrity and Triplet–Singlet Dual Energy Migration

Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2018, 9, 16, 4613–4624
Publication Date (Web):July 30, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

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    Triplet–triplet annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) is a process wherein longer-wavelength light (lower-energy photons) is converted into shorter-wavelength light (higher-energy photons) under low excitation intensity in multichromophore systems. There have been many reports on highly efficient TTA-UC in solution; however, significant challenges remain in the development of solid-state upconverters in order to explore real-world applications. In this Perspective, we discuss the advantages and challenges of different approaches for TTA-UC in solvent-free solid systems. We consider that the energy migration-based TTA-UC has the potential to achieve ideal materials with high UC efficiency at weak solar irradiance. While the UC performance of such systems is still limited at this moment, we introduce recently developed important concepts to improve it, including kinetic/thermodynamic donor dispersion in acceptor assemblies, defectless crystals, and triplet–singlet dual energy migration. Future integration of these concepts into a single material would realize the ideal TTA-UC system.

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