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Light-Switchable One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Based on MOFs with Photomodulatable Refractive Index

  • Zejun Zhang
    Zejun Zhang
    Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
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  • Kai Müller
    Kai Müller
    Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    More by Kai Müller
  • Shahriar Heidrich
    Shahriar Heidrich
    Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • Meike Koenig
    Meike Koenig
    Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    More by Meike Koenig
  • Tawheed Hashem
    Tawheed Hashem
    Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • Tobias Schlöder
    Tobias Schlöder
    Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • David Bléger
    David Bléger
    Department of Chemistry and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin, Germany
  • Wolfgang Wenzel
    Wolfgang Wenzel
    Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • , and 
  • Lars Heinke*
    Lars Heinke
    Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
    *E-mail: [email protected]
    More by Lars Heinke
Cite this: J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2019, 10, 21, 6626–6633
Publication Date (Web):October 9, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02614
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Photonic crystals are solids with regular structures having periodicities comparable to the wavelength of light. Here, we showcase the photomodulation of the refractive index of a crystalline material and present a quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal with remote-controllable optical properties. The photonic material is composed of layers of TiO2 and films of a nanoporous metal–organic framework (MOF) with azobenzene side groups. While the rigid MOF lattice is unaffected, the optical density is reversibly modified by the light-induced transcis-azobenzene isomerization. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and precise DFT calculations show the optical-density change results from the different orbital localizations of the azobenzene isomers and their tremendously different oscillator strengths. The photomodulation of the MOF refractive index controls the optical properties of the quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal with Bragg reflexes reversibly shifted by more than 4 nm. This study may path the way to photoswitchable photonic materials applied in advanced, tunable optical components and lens coatings and in light-based information processing.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02614.

    • Further infrared and ellipsometry data as well as additional results of the DFT calculation (PDF)

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    This article is cited by 17 publications.

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    8. Zhihuan Li, Jianxi Liu, Haoze Wu, Jiao Tang, Zhongyang Li, Yadong Xu, Feng Zhou, Weimin Liu. Photonic crystals constructed by isostructural metal-organic framework films. Nano Research 2023, 16 (7) , 9569-9576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-023-5505-5
    9. Dong-Hui Chen, Hartmut Gliemann, Christof Wöll. Layer-by-layer assembly of metal-organic framework thin films: Fabrication and advanced applications. Chemical Physics Reviews 2023, 4 (1) https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0135019
    10. Zhaolong Wang, Yaru Wang, Jun Yan, Bin Liu, Yunlin Chen, Yahui Tian. Metal–organic framework-based photonic crystal platforms for gas sensing: a review. Materials Advances 2022, 3 (17) , 6728-6741. https://doi.org/10.1039/D2MA00269H
    11. Jaber Keyvan Rad, Zahra Balzade, Ali Reza Mahdavian. Spiropyran-based advanced photoswitchable materials: A fascinating pathway to the future stimuli-responsive devices. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews 2022, 51 , 100487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2022.100487
    12. Hannah F. Drake, Gregory S. Day, Zhifeng Xiao, Hong-Cai Zhou, Matthew R. Ryder. Light-induced switchable adsorption in azobenzene- and stilbene-based porous materials. Trends in Chemistry 2022, 4 (1) , 32-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trechm.2021.11.003
    13. Chongxiong Duan, Yi Yu, Jingjing Li, Libo Li, Bichun Huang, Dongchu Chen, Hongxia Xi. Recent advances in the synthesis of monolithic metal-organic frameworks. Science China Materials 2021, 64 (6) , 1305-1319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-020-1585-1
    14. Ritesh Haldar, Christof Wöll. Hierarchical assemblies of molecular frameworks—MOF-on-MOF epitaxial heterostructures. Nano Research 2021, 14 (2) , 355-368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-020-2953-z
    15. Germán E. Gomez, Federico Roncaroli. Photofunctional metal-organic framework thin films for sensing, catalysis and device fabrication. Inorganica Chimica Acta 2020, 513 , 119926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2020.119926
    16. Ritesh Haldar, Lars Heinke, Christof Wöll. Advanced Photoresponsive Materials Using the Metal–Organic Framework Approach. Advanced Materials 2020, 32 (20) https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201905227
    17. Shaolin Zhou, Shanri Chen, Yufei Wu, Shaowei Liao, Hailiang Li, Changqing Xie, Mansun Chan. Bistable active spectral tuning of one-dimensional nanophotonic crystal by phase change. Optics Express 2020, 28 (6) , 8341. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.387814

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