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Entropic and Energetic Elasticities of Natural Rubber with a Nanomatrix Structure

  • Yoshimasa Yamamoto
    Yoshimasa Yamamoto
    Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tokyo College, 1220-2, Kunugida-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0997, Japan
  • Kota Endo
    Kota Endo
    Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan
    More by Kota Endo
  • Quentin Tévenot
    Quentin Tévenot
    Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan
  • Kenichiro Kosugi
    Kenichiro Kosugi
    Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan
  • Ken Nakajima
    Ken Nakajima
    Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-Okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
    More by Ken Nakajima
  • , and 
  • Seiichi Kawahara*
    Seiichi Kawahara
    Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: Langmuir 2020, 36, 38, 11341–11348
Publication Date (Web):August 24, 2020
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02111
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

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The entropic and energetic elasticities of natural rubber with a nanomatrix structure are investigated by measuring the viscoelastic properties of deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR)-graft-polystyrene (PS). A nanomatrix structure is formed by graft copolymerization of styrene onto the surface of natural rubber particles, followed by coagulation. The morphology of the nanomatrix structure is observed with transmission electron microscopy. Natural rubber particles with about 1 μm diameter are well dispersed in a nanomatrix of PS. The horizontal shift factor (aT) and vertical shift factor (bT) are determined by superposition to create a master curve according to the time–temperature superposition principle. The positive slope of DPNR appears in the plot of bT versus temperature, suggesting that entropic elasticity occurs. In contrast, the slopes of DPNR-graft-PS are negative at lower temperatures but positive at higher temperatures. The negative slope, which suggests entropic elasticity, may be attributed to the formation of a nanomatrix structure. Natural rubber with a nanomatrix structure realizes both energetic elasticity and entropic elasticity.

Cited By

This article is cited by 3 publications.

  1. Seiichi Kawahara, Hironari Nishioka, Masaki Yamano, Yoshimasa Yamamoto. Synthetic Rubber with the Tensile Strength of Natural Rubber. ACS Applied Polymer Materials 2022, 4 (4) , 2323-2328. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.1c01508
  2. Atsuomi Shundo, Mika Aoki, Satoru Yamamoto, Keiji Tanaka. Effect of Cross-Linking Density on Horizontal and Vertical Shift Factors in Linear Viscoelastic Functions of Epoxy Resins. Macromolecules 2021, 54 (20) , 9618-9624. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.1c01293
  3. Thuong Nghiem Thi, Ha Cao Hong, Yusof Nurul Hayati, Seiichi Kawahara. Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and vinyltriethoxysilane binary monomers onto natural rubber. Journal of Polymer Research 2021, 28 (7) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10965-021-02606-x

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