ACS Publications. Most Trusted. Most Cited. Most Read
My Activity

Flow Microreactor Synthesis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIF)@ZIF Core–Shell Metal–Organic Framework Particles and Their Adsorption Properties

Cite this: Langmuir 2021, 37, 13, 3858–3867
Publication Date (Web):February 24, 2021
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

    Article Views





    Read OnlinePDF (8 MB)
    Supporting Info (1)»


    Abstract Image

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with core–shell structures enable to enhance intrinsic properties of constituent MOFs and impart additional functional activities. Although shell thickness is a key factor for regulating the properties of core–shell MOF particles, controlling it has been challenging. The widely used batch reactor synthesis cannot produce core–shell particles with uniform shell thickness because of poor reactant mixing. A microreactor could ensure excellent mixing, and that would allow to control shell thickness. In this study, we synthesized zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)@ZIF-67 and ZIF-67@ZIF-8 core–shell particles using a microreactor and investigated the effects of the mixing performance on the shell thickness of the obtained particles. Our results demonstrated that rapid mixing was critical for the uniformity of the synthesized particles. The concentration of core particles is another key factor that can preferentially induce heterogeneous nucleation on the surface of the core particles without inducing self-nucleation in the bulk solution, particularly when the self-nucleation rate of the shell MOF is high. The N2 adsorption isotherms of the synthesized particles revealed their unique adsorption properties, which were ascribed to the core–shell structures obtained at low shell formation rates. Our simple and versatile synthesis technique not only allowed the preparation of ZIF@ZIF particles with novel functionalities but also can be extended to synthesize core–shell MOF particles with different combinations of core particles and shells.

    Supporting Information

    Jump To

    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at

    • The concept of the flow microreactor synthesis and SEM images, STEM-EDX images, XRD patterns, N2 adsorption isotherms, ICP analysis results, yields of the shell formation, and the summary of gate adsorption behaviors and gate pressures of the resultant particles (PDF)

    Terms & Conditions

    Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system:

    Cited By

    This article is cited by 13 publications.

    1. Wei Zhu, Ruoding Wang, Qiong Tang, Zepeng Zhang, Zhonglong Yin, Zhen Yang, Weiben Yang. Renewable Adsorbents for Selective Phosphorus Removal: Co(OH)2-Derived ZIF-67 on Anion Exchange Resin. Langmuir 2023, 39 (25) , 8760-8768.
    2. Yu-An Hsueh, Yi Ching Chuah, Chia-Her Lin, De-Hao Tsai. Aerosol-Assisted Synthesis of Metal–Organic Framework-Derived Hybrid Nanomaterials for Reverse Water–Gas Shift Reaction. ACS Applied Nano Materials 2022, 5 (7) , 8883-8893.
    3. Jia Qu, Tian-Cheng Chu, Xiao-Xue Meng, Li-Ying Zhang, Zuo-Xi Li. Coordination Polymer Derived Porous Carbon Activated in Situ by the ZnCl2 Dot: Capacitances Greatly Enhanced by Redox-Activity Additives in Electrolytes. Langmuir 2021, 37 (49) , 14275-14283.
    4. Jianfeng Ran, Xuxu Wang, Yuanhong Liu, Shaohua Yin, Shiwei Li, Libo Zhang. Microreactor-based micro/nanomaterials: fabrication, advances, and outlook. Materials Horizons 2023, 10 (7) , 2343-2372.
    5. Svapnil Kevat, Bhaumik Sutariya, V. N. Lad. Microfluidics-assisted, time-effective and continuous synthesis of bimetallic ZIF-8/67 under different synthesis conditions. Journal of Materials Science 2023, 58 (12) , 5219-5233.
    6. Haojie Li, Shengyi Zhuang, Bingyu Zhao, Yuxiu Yu, Yaodong Liu. Visualization of the gas permeation in core–shell MOF/Polyimide mixed matrix membranes and structural optimization based on finite element equivalent simulation. Separation and Purification Technology 2023, 305 , 122504.
    7. Yuta Fujita, Kotona Kohaku, Nao Komiyama, Kazuya Ujiie, Hyuma Masu, Takashi Kojima, Hiroki Wadati, Hirofumi Kanoh, Keiki Kishikawa, Michinari Kohri. Colorless Magnetic Colloidal Particles Based on an Amorphous Metal‐Organic Framework Using Holmium as the Metal Species.. ChemNanoMat 2022, 8 (7)
    8. Chaoqun Fan, Jie Xu, Hong Jiang, Rizhi Chen. Controllable synthesis of hollow ZIF-8 microspheres via interface reaction with enhanced CO2 adsorption. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 2022, 309 , 123017.
    9. Harsharaj S. Jadhav, Harshad A. Bandal, Seeram Ramakrishna, Hern Kim. Critical Review, Recent Updates on Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework‐67 (ZIF‐67) and Its Derivatives for Electrochemical Water Splitting. Advanced Materials 2022, 34 (11)
    10. Satoshi Watanabe, Shotaro Hiraide, Hayato Kunimitsu, Atsushi Fujiwara, Minoru T. Miyahara. Mechanism of CO2 Capacity Reduction of Flexible Metal-Organic Framework Caused by Water Adsorption. Frontiers in Materials 2022, 9
    11. Yaxin Hu, Yue Zhou, Zhou Yang, Fang Ren, Zhennan Chen, Yixiao Fu, Ruoyu Dong, Liangbiao Wang, Quanfa Zhou, Hengfei Qin. Adsorption kinetics of gaseous chlorobenzene on electrospun lignin-based nanofiber. Journal of Materials Science 2022, 57 (2) , 1536-1544.
    12. Chaoqun Fan, Jie Xu, Hong Jiang, Rizhi Chen. Controllable Synthesis of Hollow ZIF-8 Microspheres Via Interface Reaction with Enhanced CO 2 Adsorption. SSRN Electronic Journal 2022, 43
    13. Satoshi Watanabe, Tomohiro Koshiyama, Takeshi Watanabe, Minoru T. Miyahara. Room-Temperature Synthesis of Ni and Pt-Co Alloy Nanoparticles Using a Microreactor. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering 2021, 3

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    Pair your accounts.

    Export articles to Mendeley

    Get article recommendations from ACS based on references in your Mendeley library.

    You’ve supercharged your research process with ACS and Mendeley!

    STEP 1:
    Click to create an ACS ID

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Please note: If you switch to a different device, you may be asked to login again with only your ACS ID.

    Your Mendeley pairing has expired. Please reconnect