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Avoiding Hemolytic Anemia by Understanding the Effect of the Molecular Architecture of Gemini Surfactants on Hemolysis

  • Vandana Agarwal
    Vandana Agarwal
    Department of Chemistry, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab 144011, India
    Department of Chemistry, B.B.K. D.A.V. College for Women, Amritsar, Punjab 143005, India
  • Vikas Gupta
    Vikas Gupta
    Department of Biotechnology, DAV College, Amritsar, Punjab 143001, India
    More by Vikas Gupta
  • Vimal Kumar Bhardwaj
    Vimal Kumar Bhardwaj
    Department of Chemistry, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab 144011, India
  • Kultar Singh
    Kultar Singh
    Department of Chemistry, Khalsa College, G. T. Road, Amritsar, Punjab 143002, India
    More by Kultar Singh
  • Poonam Khullar
    Poonam Khullar
    Department of Chemistry, B.B.K. D.A.V. College for Women, Amritsar, Punjab 143005, India
  • , and 
  • Mandeep Singh Bakshi*
    Mandeep Singh Bakshi
    Department of Chemistry, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin—Green Bay, 2420 Nicolet Drive, Green Bay, Wisconsin 54311-7001, United States
    *E-mail: [email protected]
Cite this: Langmuir 2021, 37, 12, 3709–3720
Publication Date (Web):March 18, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00154
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Hemolytic behavior of a series of different categories of Gemini surfactants was determined in their low concentration range. Cationic Gemini surfactants of different molecular architectures prove to be highly cytotoxic even at 0.1 mM. Anionic and amino acid-based Gemini surfactants were minimally cytotoxic, although their toxicity was concentration-dependent. With respect to monomeric surfactants of comparable hydrocarbon chain lengths, cationic Gemini surfactants were much more toxic than anionic Gemini surfactants. Incubation temperature was another important parameter that significantly drove the hemolysis irrespective of the molecular structure of the surfactant. Results indicated that the surface activity or liquid–blood cell membrane adsorption tendency of a surfactant molecule determined the degree of hemolytic anemia. Greater surface activity induced greater cytotoxicity, especially when the surfactant possessed a stronger ability to interact with the membrane proteins through hydrophilic interactions. That provided cationic Gemini surfactants a higher ability for hemolytic anemia because they were able to interact with an electronegative cell membrane with favorable interactions in comparison to anionic or amino acid-based Gemini surfactants. These findings are expected to help in designing surface-active drugs with a suitable molecular architecture that can avoid hemolytic anemia.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00154.

    • Surfactant syntheses, spectral data, samples photos, UV–visible spectra, and data table (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 10 publications.

    1. Zhongjing Li, Xiaoqun Tang, Zhaobiao Mou, Xiaoxiao Wang, Shengji Lv, Xiaowei Fan, Taotao Dong, Zijing Li. Surfactants Accelerate Isotope Exchange-Based 18F-Fluorination in Water. Langmuir 2023, 39 (26) , 9007-9016. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.3c00522
    2. Yimin Hu, Yu Chen, Zixian Cai, Shaoan Lei, Rong Guo. Unusual Increasing Viscoelasticity of Wormlike Micelles Composed of Imidazolium Gemini Surfactants with Temperature. Langmuir 2023, 39 (20) , 7143-7153. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.3c00574
    3. Prabhjot Kaur, Mandeep Singh Bakshi. Water-Insoluble Sustainable Magnetic Nanoparticles for Green Extraction of Metallic Pollutants from Aqueous Bulk: Host–Guest Interactions at Immiscible Interfaces. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2023, 11 (18) , 6988-7001. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.2c07460
    4. Vandana Agarwal, Vikas Gupta, Vimal Kumar Bhardwaj, Kultar Singh, Poonam Khullar, Mandeep Singh Bakshi. Hemolytic Response of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles at the Interface and in Bulk: Extraction of Blood Cells by Magnetic Nanoparticles. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2022, 14 (5) , 6428-6441. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c23496
    5. Amandeep Kaur, Ravneet Kaur Sandhu, Poonam Khullar, Kultar Singh, Gurinder Kaur Ahluwalia, Mandeep Singh Bakshi. Colloidal Stabilization of Sodium Dilauraminocystine for Selective Nanoparticle–Nanoparticle Interactions: Their Screening and Extraction by Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles. Langmuir 2021, 37 (21) , 6588-6599. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00956
    6. Jasmeet Kaur, Pooja Sharma, Gagandeep Kaur, Pamita Awasthi, Harsh Kumar, Ramanjeet Kaur. Inquisition of micellar and surface active properties of gemini surfactants in the presence of a dipeptide. Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie 2023, 237 (8) , 1165-1182. https://doi.org/10.1515/zpch-2023-0247
    7. Zhou Lu, Gan Zongjie, Zhang Qianyu, Liu Xueyan, Wu Kexin, Chen Baoyan, Tao Ran, Ren Fang, Hu Hui, Chen Huali. Preparation and characterization of a gemini surfactant-based biomimetic complex for gene delivery. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 2023, 182 , 92-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.12.002
    8. Bestenur Yalcin. Exploration of the potential of Co/Cu co-doped Fe2O4 for medical applications: nanostructure, catalytic properties, and blood compatibility. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2022, 24 (12) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-022-05645-7
    9. Rajpreet Kaur, Poonam Khullar, Anita Gupta, Mandeep Singh Bakshi. In-situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles as an indicator of unfolding and solid–liquid interfacial adsorption of proteins. Applied Nanoscience 2022, 37 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-022-02505-7
    10. Xin HE, Jie XU, Weixi JI. The effect of surfactants on the performances of ceramic slurry by material extrusion and photo-polymerization combined molding process. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan 2021, 129 (8) , 489-495. https://doi.org/10.2109/jcersj2.21057

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