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Graphene Nano-Optics in the Terahertz Gap

  • Flávio H. Feres*
    Flávio H. Feres
    “Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-859, Brazil
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
    Institute of Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    *Email: [email protected]
  • Ingrid D. Barcelos
    Ingrid D. Barcelos
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
  • Alisson R. Cadore
    Alisson R. Cadore
    Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory LNNano, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
  • Lukas Wehmeier
    Lukas Wehmeier
    Institute of Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, United States of America
  • Tobias Nörenberg
    Tobias Nörenberg
    Institute of Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    Würzburg-Dresden Cluster of Excellence - EXC 2147 (ct.qmat), Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
  • Rafael A. Mayer
    Rafael A. Mayer
    “Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-859, Brazil
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
  • Raul O. Freitas
    Raul O. Freitas
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
  • Lukas M. Eng
    Lukas M. Eng
    Institute of Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    Würzburg-Dresden Cluster of Excellence - EXC 2147 (ct.qmat), Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    More by Lukas M. Eng
  • Susanne C. Kehr*
    Susanne C. Kehr
    Institute of Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    Würzburg-Dresden Cluster of Excellence - EXC 2147 (ct.qmat), Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
    *Email: [email protected]
  • , and 
  • Francisco C. B. Maia*
    Francisco C. B. Maia
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2023, 23, 9, 3913–3920
Publication Date (Web):May 1, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c00578
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Graphene nano-optics at terahertz (THz) frequencies (ν) is theoretically anticipated to feature extraordinary effects. However, interrogating such phenomena is nontrivial, since the atomically thin graphene dimensionally mismatches the THz radiation wavelength reaching hundreds of micrometers. Greater challenges happen in the THz gap (0.1–10 THz) wherein light sources are scarce. To surpass these barriers, we use a nanoscope illuminated by a highly brilliant and tunable free-electron laser to image the graphene nano-optical response from 1.5 to 6.0 THz. For ν < 2 THz, we observe a metal-like behavior of graphene, which screens optical fields akin to noble metals, since this excitation range approaches its charge relaxation frequency. At 3.8 THz, plasmonic resonances cause a field-enhancement effect (FEE) that improves the graphene imaging power. Moreover, we show that the metallic behavior and the FEE are tunable upon electrical doping, thus providing further control of these graphene nano-optical properties in the THz gap.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c00578.

    • Details on device fabrication and gate-dependence experiments, theoretical calculations for plasmon–polariton dispersion, higher-harmonic demodulation, as well as phase contrast and KPFM data analysis (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 1 publications.

    1. Lukas Wehmeier, Mengkun Liu, Suji Park, Houk Jang, D. N. Basov, Christopher C. Homes, G. Lawrence Carr. Ultrabroadband Terahertz Near-Field Nanospectroscopy with a HgCdTe Detector. ACS Photonics 2023, 10 (12) , 4329-4339. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsphotonics.3c01148

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