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Band Gap Engineering in a 2D Material for Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion

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† ‡ Department of Chemistry and Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2016, 16, 1, 74–79
Publication Date (Web):December 11, 2015
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02895
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    The electronic structure of 2D semiconductors depends on their thickness, providing new opportunities to engineer semiconductors for energy conversion, electronics, and catalysis. Here we show how a 3D semiconductor, black phosphorus, becomes active for solar-to-chemical energy conversion when it is thinned to a 2D material. The increase in its band gap, from 0.3 eV (3D) to 2.1 eV (2D monolayer), is accompanied by a 40-fold enhancement in the formation of chemical products. Despite this enhancement, smaller flakes also have shorter excited state lifetimes. We deduce a mechanism in which recombination occurs at flake edges, while the “van der Waals” surface of black phosphorus bonds to chemical intermediates and facilitates electron transfer. The unique properties of black phosphorus highlight its potential as a customizable material for solar energy conversion and catalysis, while also allowing us to identify design rules for 2D photocatalysts that will enable further improvements in these materials.

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