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In Situ TEM Analysis of Organic–Inorganic Metal-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells under Electrical Bias

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Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Rue de la Maladière 71B, Neuchâtel CH-2000, Switzerland
§ Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel CH-4056, Switzerland
Ernst Ruska—Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich D-52425, Germany
Cite this: Nano Lett. 2016, 16, 11, 7013–7018
Publication Date (Web):October 24, 2016
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03158
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Changes in the nanostructure of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells are assessed as a function of current–voltage stimulus by biasing thin samples in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Various degradation pathways are identified both in situ and ex situ, predominantly at the positively biased MAPbI3 interface. Iodide migrates into the positively biased charge transport layer and also volatilizes along with organic species, which triggers the nucleation of PbI2 nanoparticles and voids and hence decreases the cell performance.

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    • Figures showing the microstructural effects of air exposure, sample thickness, in situ and ex situ JV characterization and electron beam irradiation in addition to JV curves obtained in situ and ex situ. (PDF)

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