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Preprinting Saponification of Carbon Thermoplastic Filaments Provides Ready-to-Use Electrochemical Sensors

  • Ricoveer Singh Shergill
    Ricoveer Singh Shergill
    School of Applied Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, U.K.
    Centre for Stress and Age-Related Diseases, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, U.K.
  •  and 
  • Bhavik Anil Patel*
    Bhavik Anil Patel
    School of Applied Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, U.K.
    Centre for Stress and Age-Related Diseases, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, U.K.
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Electron. Mater. 2023, 5, 9, 5120–5128
Publication Date (Web):August 24, 2023
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaelm.3c00862
Copyright © 2023 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Carbon-based electrodes have been impactful in a wide array of applications; however, the balance between electrochemical performance and ease of fabrication is still a major challenge. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a promising solution to provide high-throughput easy production of precise carbon-based electrochemical sensors, but the printed electrodes from commercial filaments can exhibit poor or no electrochemical performance. Varying strategies have been utilized to overcome these challenges with different levels of success. Our study focuses on the systematic use of saponification using hydroxide to selectively remove polylactic acid (PLA) from the commercially available carbon thermoplastic filament preprinting. Cyclic voltammetry of varying redox probes was used to access the difference between multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/PLA and carbon black (CB)/PLA electrodes made with native and modified filament. Resistivity was reduced following saponification of filaments over increasing time, where surface changes were observed in the MWCNT/PLA filaments. CB/PLA and MWCNT/PLA electrodes made by using modified filaments had greater current responses and faster electron transfer kinetics than electrodes made with the native filament. Modified filament-made CB/PLA electrodes also exhibited greater electrochemical performance when compared to electrochemically treated CB/PLA electrodes made with the native filament. The preprinting saponification of the carbon PLA filament reported here provides a novel approach for fabricating high-performance ready-to-use 3D printed electrochemical sensors with utility in applications ranging in sensing and energy storage.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsaelm.3c00862.

    • The following files are available free of charge. Saponification mechanism, heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics on the 3D printed electrodes and schematic showing the choice of redox probes based on electrode surface interaction (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 1 publications.

    1. Juan F. Hernández-Rodríguez, Daniel Rojas, Alberto Escarpa. Print–Pause–Print Fabrication of Tailored Electrochemical Microfluidic Devices. Analytical Chemistry 2023, 95 (51) , 18679-18684. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.3c03364

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