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Impact of KF Post-Deposition Treatment on Aging of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Surface and Its Interface with CdS

  • Nicoleta Nicoara*
    Nicoleta Nicoara
    International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), 4715-330 Braga, Portugal
    *E-mail: [email protected]
  • Sylvie Harel
    Sylvie Harel
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)—UMR6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 cedex 3 Nantes France
    More by Sylvie Harel
  • Thomas Lepetit
    Thomas Lepetit
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)—UMR6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 cedex 3 Nantes France
  • Ludovic Arzel
    Ludovic Arzel
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)—UMR6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 cedex 3 Nantes France
  • Nicolas Barreau
    Nicolas Barreau
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)—UMR6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 cedex 3 Nantes France
  • , and 
  • Sascha Sadewasser
    Sascha Sadewasser
    International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), 4715-330 Braga, Portugal
Cite this: ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2018, 1, 6, 2681–2688
Publication Date (Web):May 10, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.8b00365
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
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Abstract

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Recent world record efficiencies for thin film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have been realized with absorbers subject to alkali fluoride post deposition treatments (PDT). We investigated the effect of ambient air exposure on the electronic properties of CIGS with KF-PDT in a combined time-dependent Kelvin probe force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. We also studied the early stage formation of the absorber/buffer interface after the initial deposition of CdS in the chemical bath. Our study shows that the KF-PDT, as well as the CdS deposition process induce an increase in the overall surface work function, as compared to bare CIGS. A K–In–Se compound forms after the KF-PDT, accompanied by a stable In oxide which explains the remarkable stability of the contact potential difference to air exposure, confirming phenomenological observations in many laboratories. In clear contrast to the untreated CIGS, the KF-treated CIGS/CdS interface shows a significant variation in the surface potential (∼360 mV) over approximately 7 h air-exposure. We attribute this variation to a Cd–In intermixing at interface, whose chemical stability is susceptible to air-exposure. Our results contribute to the understanding of the electronic properties of the KF-treated and untreated CIGS/CdS junction during the early stages of the interface formation, which impact the overall device properties.

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The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00365.

  • XPS survey spectra for CIGS, CIGS/CdS, KF-CIGS, and KF-CIGS/CdS as received (0-h air exposure), O 1s and Se 3d core levels for CIGS as received (0 h) and CIGS after 7 h exposure to air, O 1s and Na 1s peaks for CIGS-0h and KF-CIGS-0h, K 2p signal for KF-CIGS-0h and KF-CIGS/CdS-0h, and peak positions for calculating the modified Auger parameter of indium α′(In) (PDF)

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Most electronic Supporting Information files are available without a subscription to ACS Web Editions. Such files may be downloaded by article for research use (if there is a public use license linked to the relevant article, that license may permit other uses). Permission may be obtained from ACS for other uses through requests via the RightsLink permission system: http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html.

Cited By

This article is cited by 10 publications.

  1. Yongheng Zhang, Qing Gao, Jianping Ao, Yunxiang Zhang, Jinlian Bi, Jiajia Guo, Yanchen Han, Guozhong Sun, Yi Zhang, Wei Liu, Fangfang Liu. Enhancing Surface Properties for Electrodeposited Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films by (NH4)2S Solution at Room Temperature. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2021, 4 (4) , 3822-3831. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.1c00220
  2. Sylvie Harel, Ludovic Arzel, Thomas Lepetit, Pawel Zabierowski, Nicolas Barreau. Influence of Sulfur Evaporation during or after KF-Post Deposition Treatment On Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS Interface Formation. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (41) , 46953-46962. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c12455
  3. Essam H. Alruqobah, Rakesh Agrawal. Potassium Treatments for Solution-Processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cells. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2020, 3 (5) , 4821-4830. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.0c00422
  4. Penghui Yang, Regan G. Wilks, Wanli Yang, Marcus Bär. Interface Formation between CdS and Alkali Postdeposition-Treated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorbers—Key To Understanding the Efficiency Gain. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2020, 12 (5) , 6688-6698. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b20327
  5. Yun Zhao, Qianqian Bai, Liqiang Chai, Xiaofei Dong, Jiangtao Chen, Jianbiao Chen, Yan Li, Xiuxun Han. The Degradation of Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 Kesterite Thin Film Solar Cells Induced by Proton Radiation. Advanced Materials Interfaces 2022, 9 (26) , 2201049. https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.202201049
  6. Yazi Wang, Shasha Lv, Zhengcao Li. Review on incorporation of alkali elements and their effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Journal of Materials Science & Technology 2022, 96 , 179-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2020.07.050
  7. Yali Sun, Hongling Guo, Pengfei Qiu, Shengli Zhang, Siyu Wang, Li Wu, Jianping Ao, Yi Zhang. Na-doping-induced modification of the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4/CdS heterojunction towards efficient solar cells. Journal of Energy Chemistry 2021, 57 , 618-626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2020.09.007
  8. Ke Cheng, Xingfen Shen, Jingling Liu, Xinsheng Liu, Zuliang Du. Sputtered Ag-alloyed Cu(In, Ga)(Se, S)2 solar cells by sequential process. Solar Energy 2021, 217 , 70-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2021.01.056
  9. Hossein Mirhosseini, Ramya Kormath Madam Raghupathy, Sudhir K. Sahoo, Hendrik Wiebeler, Manjusha Chugh, Thomas D. Kühne. In silico investigation of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 -based solar cells. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2020, 22 (46) , 26682-26701. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0CP04712K
  10. Yunxiang Zhang, Zhaojing Hu, Shuping Lin, Chaojie Wang, Shiqing Cheng, Zhichao He, Zhiqiang Zhou, Yun Sun, Wei Liu. Silver Surface Treatment of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) Thin Film: A New Passivation Process for the CdS/CIGS Heterojunction Interface. Solar RRL 2020, 4 (10) , 2000290. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202000290

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