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Sustainable Dual-Mode Smart Windows for Energy-Efficient Buildings

Cite this: ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2019, 2, 3, 1951–1960
Publication Date (Web):February 6, 2019
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract Image

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) combining visible/near-infrared (NIR) transparent amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) external layers with innovative NIR-emitting electrolytes composed of red seaweed-derived κ-carrageenan (κ-Cg) polysaccharide, glycerol (Gly), and erbium triflate (ErTrif3·xH2O) are proposed as a valuable technological solution for the development of smart windows providing less heating demand, less glare and more indoors human comfort for the new generation of energy-efficient buildings. The electrolyte preparation is cheap, clean, and fast. The optimized sample including 50 wt% Gly/κ-Cg and 40 wt% ErTrif3·xH2O/κ-Cg exhibits the highest ionic conductivity (1.5 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 20 °C) and displays ultraviolet (UV)/blue and NIR emissions associated with the κ-Cg-based host and the Er3+ ions (4I15/24I13/2), respectively. The 5-layer configuration ECD tested demonstrated fast switching time (50 s), high electrochromic contrast (transmittance variations of 46/51% at 550/1000 nm), high optical density change (0.89/0.75 at 550/1000 nm), outstanding coloration efficiency (450th cycle = –15902/–13400 cm2 C–1 and +3072/+2589 cm2 C–1 at 550/1000 nm for coloration and bleaching, respectively), excellent electrochemical stability, and self-healing after mechanical damage. The ECD encompasses two voltage-operated modes: semibright warm (+3.0 V, transmittances of 52/61% at 550/1000 nm) and dark cold (−3.0 V, transmittances of 7/11% at 550/1000 nm).

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge on the ACS Publications website at DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b02041.

    • SEM images, DSC curves, FT-Raman and curve-fitting the in νsSO3 region, transmission spectra, cyclic voltammograms, photographs of the bleached and colored states, relevant details of the synthesis, and optical parameters (PDF)

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