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Graphene Field Effect Transistors: A Sensitive Platform for Detecting Sarin

  • Natalia Alzate-Carvajal
    Natalia Alzate-Carvajal
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
  • Jaewoo Park
    Jaewoo Park
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
    More by Jaewoo Park
  • Martin Pykal
    Martin Pykal
    Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Czech Advanced Technology and Research Institute (CATRIN), Palacký University Olomouc, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic
    More by Martin Pykal
  • Petr Lazar
    Petr Lazar
    Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Czech Advanced Technology and Research Institute (CATRIN), Palacký University Olomouc, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic
    More by Petr Lazar
  • Ranjana Rautela
    Ranjana Rautela
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
  • Samantha Scarfe
    Samantha Scarfe
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
  • Lukas Scarfe
    Lukas Scarfe
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
    More by Lukas Scarfe
  • Jean-Michel Ménard
    Jean-Michel Ménard
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
  • Michal Otyepka
    Michal Otyepka
    Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Czech Advanced Technology and Research Institute (CATRIN), Palacký University Olomouc, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic
    Czech Republic & IT4Innovations, VSB − Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 2172/15, 708 00 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
  • , and 
  • Adina Luican-Mayer*
    Adina Luican-Mayer
    Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9A7, Canada
    *(A.L.-M.) Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 51, 61751–61757
Publication Date (Web):December 15, 2021
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c17770
Copyright © 2021 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Real time, rapid, and accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) is an ongoing security challenge. Typical detection methods for CWA are adapted from traditional chemistry techniques such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, which lack portability. Here, we address this challenge by evaluating graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) as a sensing platform for sarin gas using both experiment and theory. Experimentally, we measure the sensing response of GFETs when exposed to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a less toxic compound used as simulant due to its chemical similarities to sarin. We find low detection limits of 800 ppb, the highest sensitivity reported up to date for this type of sensing platform. In addition to changes in resistance, we implement an in-operando monitor of the GFETs characteristics during and after exposure to the analyte, which gives insights into the graphene–DMMP interactions. Moreover, using theoretical calculations, we show that DMMP and sarin interact similarly with graphene, implying that GFETs should be highly sensitive to detecting sarin. GFETs offer a versatile platform for the development of compact and miniaturized devices that can provide real-time detection of dangerous chemicals in the local environment.

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    • Additional details of response time and deployment in the field, singlet-to-noise, and charge transfer estimate (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 5 publications.

    1. Sujithkumar Ganesh Moorthy, Jacob Arvidson, Rita Meunier-Prest, Hong Wang, Marcel Bouvet. π-Extended Porphyrin–Phthalocyanine Heterojunction Devices Exhibiting High Ammonia Sensitivity with a Remarkable Light Effect. ACS Sensors 2024, 9 (2) , 883-894. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.3c02247
    2. Natalia Alzate-Carvajal, Jaewoo Park, Ilhem Bargaoui, Ranjana Rautela, Zachary J. Comeau, Lukas Scarfe, Jean-Michel Ménard, Seth B. Darling, Benoît H. Lessard, Adina Luican-Mayer. Arrays of Functionalized Graphene Chemiresistors for Selective Sensing of Volatile Organic Compounds. ACS Applied Electronic Materials 2023, 5 (3) , 1514-1520. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaelm.2c01544
    3. Sonia Freddi, Daniele Perilli, Luca Vaghi, Mauro Monti, Antonio Papagni, Cristiana Di Valentin, Luigi Sangaletti. Pushing Down the Limit of NH3 Detection of Graphene-Based Chemiresistive Sensors through Functionalization by Thermally Activated Tetrazoles Dimerization. ACS Nano 2022, 16 (7) , 10456-10469. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c01095
    4. Bin Luo, Jianan Weng, Zhi Geng, Qichao Pan, Xilin Pei, Yong He, Chuanzhi Chen, Hongxing Zhang, Renbo Wei, Yupeng Yuan, Jin Yang, Jinyi Ma, Zhengwei You, Bo Zhu. Solution-processed wafer-scale nanoassembly of conducting polymers enables selective ultratrace nerve agent detection at low power. Nano Research 2022, 4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-022-5148-y
    5. Jaewoo Park, Franklyn Jumu, Justin Power, Maxime Richard, Yomna Elsahli, Mohamad Ali Jarkas, Andy Ruan, Adina Luican-Mayer, Jean-Michel Ménard. Drone-Mountable Gas Sensing Platform Using Graphene Chemiresistors for Remote In-Field Monitoring. Sensors 2022, 22 (6) , 2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062383