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Nanocatalyst-Enabled Physically Unclonable Functions as Smart Anticounterfeiting Tags with AI-Aided Smartphone Authentication

  • Mauro Moglianetti*
    Mauro Moglianetti
    Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    *Email: [email protected]
  • Deborah Pedone
    Deborah Pedone
    Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
  • Pietro Morerio
    Pietro Morerio
    Pattern Analysis and Computer Vision (PAVIS), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Enrico Melen, 83, 16152 Genova, Italy
  • Anna Scarsi
    Anna Scarsi
    Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Genova, Via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova, Italy
    More by Anna Scarsi
  • Paolo Donati
    Paolo Donati
    Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    More by Paolo Donati
  • Matteo Bustreo
    Matteo Bustreo
    Pattern Analysis and Computer Vision (PAVIS), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Enrico Melen, 83, 16152 Genova, Italy
  • Alessio Del Bue*
    Alessio Del Bue
    Pattern Analysis and Computer Vision (PAVIS), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Enrico Melen, 83, 16152 Genova, Italy
    *Email: [email protected]
  • , and 
  • Pier Paolo Pompa*
    Pier Paolo Pompa
    Nanobiointeractions & Nanodiagnostics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, Italy
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 22, 25898–25906
Publication Date (Web):May 25, 2022
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c02995
Copyright © 2022 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Counterfeiting is a worldwide issue affecting many industrial sectors, ranging from specialized technologies to retail market, such as fashion brands, pharmaceutical products, and consumer electronics. Counterfeiting is not only a huge economic burden (>$ 1 trillion losses/year), but it also represents a serious risk to human health, for example, due to the exponential increase of fake drugs and food products invading the market. Considering such a global problem, numerous anticounterfeit technologies have been recently proposed, mostly based on tags. The most advanced category, based on encryption and cryptography, is represented by physically unclonable functions (PUFs). A PUF tag is based on a unique physical object generated through chemical methods with virtually endless possible combinations, providing remarkable encoding capability. However, most methods adopted nowadays are based on expensive and complex technologies, relying on instrumental readouts, which make them not effective in real-world applications. To achieve a simple yet cryptography-based anticounterfeit method, herein we exploit a combination of nanotechnology, chemistry, and artificial intelligence (AI). Notably, we developed platinum nanocatalyst-enabled visual tags, exhibiting the properties of PUFs (encoding capability >10300) along with fast (1 min) ON/OFF readout and full reversibility, enabling multiple onsite authentication cycles. The development of an accurate AI-aided algorithm powers the system, allowing for smartphone-based PUF authentications.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.2c02995.

    • PtNP characterization, high encoding capability snPUF tag realized on a nitrocellulose membrane, optical and SEM images of a nylon substrate drop-cast with a Pt nanocatalyst solution, and Convolutional Neural Network design (PDF)

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    Cited By

    This article is cited by 6 publications.

    1. Chunyu Yang, Kai Zhu, Bing Yan. Efficient Multi-stimulus-Responsive Luminescent Eu(III)-Modified HOFs Materials: Detecting Thiram and Caffeic Acid and Constructing a Flexible Substrate Anti-counterfeiting Platform. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2024, Article ASAP.
    2. Abidin Esidir, Sami Pekdemir, Mustafa Kalay, Mustafa Serdar Onses. Ultradurable Embedded Physically Unclonable Functions. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2024, 16 (13) , 16532-16543. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.4c01726
    3. Wen Ma, Qingkai Qian, Saif M. H. Qaid, Shuangyi Zhao, Dehai Liang, Wensi Cai, Zhigang Zang. Water-Molecule-Induced Reversible Fluorescence in a One-Dimensional Mn-Based Hybrid Halide for Anticounterfeiting and Digital Encryption–Decryption. Nano Letters 2023, 23 (19) , 8932-8939. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c02356
    4. Sangsun Lee, Sami Pekdemir, Nilgun Kayaci, Mustafa Kalay, Mustafa Serdar Onses, Jongpil Ye. Graphene-Based Physically Unclonable Functions with Dual Source of Randomness. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2023, 15 (28) , 33878-33889. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c05613
    5. Amin Abdollahi, Mobin Rahmanidoust, Negar Hanaei, Ali Dashti. All-in-one photoluminescent Janus nanoparticles for smart technologies: Organic light-emitting diodes, anticounterfeiting, and optical sensors. European Polymer Journal 2023, 186 , 111873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2023.111873
    6. Anna Scarsi, Deborah Pedone, Pier Paolo Pompa. A multi-line platinum nanozyme-based lateral flow device for the colorimetric evaluation of total antioxidant capacity in different matrices. Nanoscale Advances 2023, 13 https://doi.org/10.1039/D2NA00931E

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