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Laser-Synthesized Ru-Anchored Few-Layer Black Phosphorus for Superior Hydrogen Evolution: Role of Acoustic Levitation

  • Juhyeon Park
    Juhyeon Park
    Department of Chemistry (BK21 FOUR), Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
    More by Juhyeon Park
  • Jayaraman Theerthagiri
    Jayaraman Theerthagiri
    Department of Chemistry (BK21 FOUR), Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
  • Ahreum Min
    Ahreum Min
    Core-Facility Center for Photochemistry & Nanomaterials, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
    More by Ahreum Min
  • Cheol Joo Moon
    Cheol Joo Moon
    Core-Facility Center for Photochemistry & Nanomaterials, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
  • , and 
  • Myong Yong Choi*
    Myong Yong Choi
    Department of Chemistry (BK21 FOUR), Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
    Core-Facility Center for Photochemistry & Nanomaterials, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
    *Email: [email protected]
Cite this: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2024, 16, 9, 11561–11574
Publication Date (Web):February 22, 2024
https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c18427
Copyright © 2024 American Chemical Society

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    Abstract

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    Electrochemical water splitting, driven by processed catalysts, is the most reasonable method for hydrogen production. This study demonstrates an activation phenomenon with ruthenium (Ru) nanoclusters on few-layered black phosphorus (BP), greatly enhancing the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Efficient BP exfoliation was achieved using acoustic levitators and pulsed laser irradiation in liquids (PLIL), yielding charge-transfer Ru-nanoclusters on modulated surfaces. Various PLIL parameters were examined for the optimal BP sheet size. After ruthenization, Ru’s d-band center facilitated hydrogen adsorption via Ru–H bonding. Synergy between BP’s charge-carrier properties and Ru’s active sites boosted HER kinetics with an ultralow overpotential of 84 mV at 10 mA/cm2 in KOH. Additionally, the RuO2 || RuBP-2 electrolyzer demonstrated remarkable overall water splitting performance at ∼1.60 V at 10 mA/cm2. These results highlight the pivotal role of metal nanoclusters on exfoliated BP surfaces and offer a refined strategy for high-density electrocatalysts in energy conversion.

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    The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.3c18427.

    • The detailed chemical and characterization information; experimental arrangement pictorial representation; FTIR; acoustic levitator proceeded PLIL process real setup; FESEM and EDS; average particle size distribution; core-level XPS spectra; full CV curves for active sites; TOF and Mass activity; CV curves in the nonFaradaic region; scan rate vs ΔJ/2 plots; Nyquist plot at various potential; FESEM-EDS elemental mapping before and after stability; GC spectra for H2 measurement; real image of fabricated RuO2 ∥ RuBP-2 membrane-less electrolyzer; comparison of RuBP-2 HER efficiency table (PDF)

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